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"- New Grammar for Germans to Learn the English Langoage. By P. Gands. 
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Key to do. 13mo. 

Soemer's Polyglot Reader (in German). Translated by Dr. Solgbb. 13mo. 

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Wrage's Practical German Grammar. 12mo. 




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3 2044 102 868 346 



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A NEW 



PRACTICAL AND EASY METHOD 



or LEARNING 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE. 



AFTER THE SYSTEM 



F. AHN, 

XXHTTOR OV PHILOSOPHT AND PB0FE8S0B AT THS OOLLBOB 
OF NBUSS. 



FIKST AMERICAN EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,' 

1, 8, AND 5 BOND STREET. 
1888. 



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tducT 2.h^ .^i>. )4o 



HARVARD COLLEGE L133AaY 

THE BEQUtST OF 

H. C. G. vnn JA^El^UMU 

JANUARY 10, \^St 



Bi;tBred aooordlng to Aet of Gongreos, In the yew 18G0, by 

D. APPLETON A CO., 

In kbe Clerk's Office of the Dlstriet Goart of the United SUtce tir tlie 
fioatbe'ni Dfetrlet of Nev York. 



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t»REFACE. 



"Lea»n a foreign ulnguage as you learned youk 
hotheb-tonguk" — this is, in a few words, the method 
which Professor Ahn has so successfully adopted in his 
Continental Grammars. 

. It is the way that nature herself follows, — ^it is the 
same which the moth^ points out in speaking to her 
child, repeating to it a hundred times the same words, 
combining them imperceptibly, and succeeding in this 
way to make it speak the same language she speaks. 
To learn in this manner is no longer a study — it is an 
amusement. 

The editor of this Grammar has followed the rational 
system which has already procured for Professor Ahn 
a European reputation, and he has adopted it for the 
study of the Spanish Language. He is greatly indebted 
to the excellent Grammars of Lespada and Martinez, 
which he has used for the groundwork of this Grammar, 
and it is hoped that its simplicity and utility will pro- 
cure for it that favor which the German, French, and 
Italian Grammars of Professor Aim have already fumul 
in the colleges and schools of England. 

THE EDITOR. 



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CONTENTS. 



PnONUNOIATION . 7 

The Alphabet 7 

Doable Letters II 

Division of Syllables 11 

Punctuation 12 

Accent • 12 

Exercises in Pronunciation 14 

PART L 

Tub Article 16 

Declension of the Article 17 

On the Use of the Article 18 

Declension of Substantives 20 

Declension of Proper Names 21 

Examples on the Article 22 

Adjsotites 24 

On the Government of Adjectives 26 

Diminutives 28 

Augmentatives 29 

The Comparison of Adjectives 31 

Irregular Oomparisons 84 

On the Oonstruction of a Sentence with "Tanto"and "Ouanto" 85 

Numeral Adjectives — 1. Oardinal Numbers 87 

2. Ordinal Numbers 89 

8. Collective Numbers 89 

4. Fractional Numbers 40 

5. Proportional Numbers 40 

Pbonouks 42 

Personal Pronouns 42 

Possessive Pronouns 46 

Demonstrative Pronouns 50 

Relative Pronouns 52 

Interrogative Pronouns 58 

Indefinite Pronouns 54 

On the rendering of the English " One," " They" 56 



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6 CONTENTB. 

Fags 

Collection of Words 67 

Easy Dialogues , 62 

Names of some Spanish- American Fruits, Vegetables, etc., not 
usually found in the Dictionaries 72 

PAKT II. 

Verbs. — Auxiliaby Vebbs , 78 

The auxiliary verb Haber, to have 78 

The auxiliary verb Tener, to have, to possess 80 

The auxiliary verb Ser, to be 88 

The auxiliary verb Estar, to be 86 

Observations on the verbs Ser and Estar 87 

Regtjlab Vebbs 90 

1st conjugation in Ar. — Amar, to love 90 

2d conjugation in Eb. — ^Temer, to fear 94 

8d conjugation in Ib. — ^Partir, to divide 98 

Observations on the Regular Verbs 100 

Passive, Befleotivb, and Impebsonal Vebbs 101 

The Passive Verb 101 

The Reflective Verb 102 

The Impersonal Verbs 103 

The Ibbegulab Vebbs 103 

1st conjugation in Ab 103 

2d conjugation in Eb Ill 

3d conjugation in Ib 119 

Of the Participle 129 

Advebbs 131 

Observations on the Adverbs 182 

Pbepositions 182 

Prepositions followed by De 183 

Prepositions followed by A i 188 

OoNJUNonoNs 183 

Intebjeotionb ^ . . . 184 

Reading Lessons 185 

Narracion 185 

Anecdota 187 

>fODEL8 OF LeTTEBS 140 

Esquelas 6 Billetes manuscritos .140' 

Cartas de Enhorabuena I4l 

Oartas de Oomercio 148 

Idiomatio Phbases 146 



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PRONUNCIATION. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The Spanish alphabet has twenty-seven letters, of 
which the following are the nwmeB : 

ai-nay. 

ai-nyay. 

oh. 

pay. 

koo. 

ai-ray, or air-ray. 



1. ^ 


ah. 


15. n, 


2.b, 


hay. 


16. fl. 


8.0, 


thay. 


17. 0, 


4. oh, 


tchay (as in eTuiin). 


as. p, 


6. d,> 


day. 


19. q, 


6. e, 


ay (as in hay). 


20. r, 


7. f; 


6f-fay. 


21.8, 


U 


hay. 


22. t, 


ah-tohay. 


23. u, 


10. i, 


ee. 


24. V, 


11. J, 
12.1 
13. 11, 


ho-tah. 


26.x, 


ai-lay. 


26. y, 


ai-lyay. 




14. m, 


ai-may. 


27. z. 



tay. 

oo. 

vay. 

ai-kis8. 

(€6 vowel, (Mr ee gree- 

ai-gab). 
thai-tah. 

K and w are not Spanish letters, but are used in 
foreign words. 

Au the letters are feminine in Spanish. 

The vowels are «, ^, % e>, u^ and y when it stands by 
itself, or at the end of a word, or of a syllable imme- 
diately followed by a consonant. They must be fully 
and distinctly nronoimced, and are never silent, except 
u in the syllables gtce^^ ffuiy quey qui. When the u is to 
be sounded in them, it is marked with two dots over it ; 
thus, arguir (ar-goo-ir), agiiero (ah-goo-er'-oh). The con- 
sonants must be fully soimded, particularly at tlie end 
of the words. 



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■ (8) 

1. ^ is pronounced as in the English words 

hrazo^ arm. alcMrma, alarm, 

area, ark. mano^ hand. 

2. -ff , as in English : 

haaton^ cane. hoca, month. 

harberOy barber. hello^ handsome. 

8 C before a^ o^ u^ Z, r, and when it is at the end of a 
syllable, sounds like k in English ; as, 

earuil^ canal. cridito, credit. 

clamor^ clamor. coco, cocoa-nut. 

before e or i sounds lisped, like th in the English 
words theftj thin : 

Cecilia^ Cecilia. cipres^ cypress. 

L Ohy as in chair^ chain (never as in the French word 
chair e) : 

ehareo^ small lake. chocolate^ chocolate. 

When ch is followed by a vowel marked with 
a circumflex accent, it must be pronounced as h \ 
as, Chofrihdis. 

6. i), as in English, but it must be pronounced very dia- 
tinctty in the words terminating in ado^ idOy &c. : 

dvda^ doubt. deeir^ to say. 

i>erdad^ truth. eiudad^ city. 

6. JFis pronounced as ^ in the words hedjfed; as, 

padre^ father. liLego^ by and by. 

madre^ mother. argumento, argument 

7. i^^, as in English : 

famoM^ famous. fratemidad^ fraternity. 

fa/cor^ favor. franco^ frank. 

8. O before a, o^ Uj Z, r, sounds as in English : 

ganso^ goose. gato, cat. 

gordoj fat. gloria^ glory. 

before e and t, it sounds as the English h aspirated : 

genioj^ genias. gitan^^ gipsj. 



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(9) 

0. U is always silent, except at the beginninff of wordb 
foUowea by ue or ua^ in which case it nad a very 
soft and slightly nasal sound, as in hueso^ bone. 

10. /, as the English ee in eel^ or i in machine : 

ilustre^ illustrious. iwdtil^ useless. 

11. ;/^ has a guttural sound, harsher, however, than the 

aspirated A in English. Before e or i, it sounds as 
the g does in Spanish before the same letters : 

Judio^ Jew. jdfxm^ soap. 

Juhes^ Thursday. jazmin^ jessamine. 

12. Z, as in English : 

loboy wolf. ladron^ robber. 

13. ZLj like the U in the word hriUiant: it is not a 

double consonant in Spanish, consequently it must 
not be divided in spelling : 

llover^ to rain. llumar^ to call. 

14. JT, as in English : 

\ mdquinay machine. morder^ to bite. 

15. iT, as in English : 

nariz^ nose. eneontrar^ to meet. 

16. -^has a strong nasal sound, like the ni in the word 

onioriy or the n as pronounced bv some in new 
(nyew). The gn in French gives the sound : 
uflaj nail. eaUon^ cannon. 

17. Oj as in English: 

odio^ hatred. 6rden, order. 

orgulloj pride. oeulta/r^ to hide. 

18. P, as in English: 

pedir^ to ask. padre^ father. 

19 ^ is alwajrs followed by t*, and is pronounced like 
the English A;: 

queja/r^ to complain. querido^ beloved. 

In conformity with the modem orthography, the 

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syllables in which u is sounded before a, <?, Oy are 
written with o instead of q ; as, cuando^ when. 

350 Z?5 at the beginning of words, after Z, n, «, and in 
componnd words, the primitive of which begins 
with r, has a harsh sound : 

ratok, rat. enriquecer^ to enrich. 

-ff, between two vowels, or in the middle of a. word, 
has a smooth sound ; as, 

meritOj merit. Moro^ Moor. 

HJi is pronounced as the rough trilled Irish r: 

perro^ dog. carrer^ to run. 

21. 8 has always a harsh, hissing sound, like 88 in Eng- 

lish; as, 

foUero, bachelor. rosa^ rose. 

22. 7", as in the English words tart^ ten^ tin : 

tenedor, fork. tam^xyry drnmmer. 

23. J7, as in hoot : 

Ultimo, last; ^til, nsefol; 

except when, without dots, it is between q and e 
or q and i, ff and « or ^ and i, it is then silent. 
u with dots is pronounced as oo ; as, arguir. 

24. F, as in English : 

'oalor^ valor. ««<?, I see. 

25. X sounds like (?« or fe in English, as in hox. For- 

merly, before e and i, it had the sound of tide 
Spanish J (ho-tahj ; that is, our aspirated A. In 
such cases the modems have changed it to^ or g. 
exelamar^ to exclaim. exaltaeion, exaltation. 

26. Y as a vowel is the same as the Spanish i (our ee) : 

Aw, to-day ; muy, very ; voy^ I am ffoinff. 

!z as a consonant sounds like me English j^ 
though somewhat softer. In Spanish manuscript, 
capital 7" is to be used instead of capital T. 
yerha^ grass. yeso^ chalk. 



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(11) 

27. Z, as the English th in thin. It never has the sound 
of the English z : 

zarmparrilla^ sarsaparilla. 

DOUBLE LETTERS. 

In simple words, e^ i, e^ r, are the only letters that 
may he written double. J? is double in the verbs of the 
first conjugation, when it is the last of the radical letters, 
and the termination begins with e; as,^<wear, to walk. 
The radical letters are pose. The termination of the 
first person singular of the preterit is ^, pasee^ I did 
walk. 

I \a double in the superlative degree of the mono- 
syllables ending in io\ ba frio^ cold ; /m^T/K?, very 
. cold. C is double only before e or i, and is pronounced 
with both syllables; as, acceder^ to accede; acoichnte, 
accident. 

Almost all words ending in English in ctioriy and their 
derivatives, change the t into c, and become Spanish ; 
as diction^ diccion ; dictionary j diccionario. 

H is written double in the middle of words, between 
two vowels, to point out its harsh sound ; as, carrOy a 
cart ; corrOj I run, &c., to distinguish them from caroy 
dear ; oarOy choir. In compound words all the vowels, 
and also n and s, are written double whenever any of 
them are the last of the component and the first of the 
word to be compounded ; as, coni/rcLaheri/wra^ a counter- 
opening ; amanaooSy ye loving each other ; domnos^ they 
give us. 

DIVISION OF SYLLABLES. 

Vowels forming a diphthong or triphthong must not 
be separated ; as, grorCiO'SO^ jpre-oiais, A single conso- 
nant between two vowels must be joined to the vowel 
after it ; as, mhrne-ro-sirsirmo. Two consonants between 
two vowels are divided, placing one to each syllable, 
except f and the mute letters followed by Z or r ; as, 
ar-ma-meii-tOj co-fre-ci-tOy ar-re-gla-do. 



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PUNCTUATION-. 

The notes used for punctuation are the same as in 
English. A difference, however, is to be observed in 
the points of exdamutian and interrogation^ which in 
long sentences are placed upside down at the beginning 
of them, in order that the reader may calculate ana 
apply the proper emphasis and tone of voice, 

ACCENT. 

Accent is the laying of a particular stress of the voice 
on a certain syllable in a word. In Spanish, as in Eng- 
lish, every word has a strong syllable, called the ac- 
cented syUable, and this accent is called the tonic acceiU^ 
to distinguish it from the written mark, called the vrnt- 
ten accent In Spanish, the only written accent used is 
that styled the acute ('). The vowels «, ^, ^, ti, when 
used as prepositions or conjunctions, are always ac- 
cented; as, ama a tuprojimo^ sahios e ignora/rUes. The 
accent is never placed over y. But in printing (diction- 
aries excepted), the capitals are seldom accented, and in 
manuscript are almost always unaccented. 

The syllables of a word are reckoned in the manner 
pointed out by the numbei's in the following example : 

4 \ t 1 

ac-cirden'tal ; 

and they are named thus: 1. ultima sUdba^ the last 
syllable; 2. penvUima^ the last syllable but one; 3. 
ant&penultima^ the last syllable but two ; 4. amis-ante- 
penwtimaj the last syllable but three. 

Tbe monosyllable must not be accented, because it is 
long from its nature. 

Exception. — ^The monosyllable el^ he, him; mi, me, 

J)ersonal pronouns : «*, yes, one's self; and rfe, ee^ and vS 
from the verbs dar^ saher^ ser^ and ver^ to give, to know, 
to be, and to see): to distinguish these monosyllables 
from ^Z, the, article ; mi, my, pronoun possessive ; w, if, 
conditional particle; de^ of, preposition; se^ himself, 
&C.J pronoun ; and ve^ go thou, verb. The words in 

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(13) 

Spanish are divided into three classes, called agudas^ 
Irevesj and esdri^ulas. 

The words called agudas are those where the stress of 
the pronnnciation is on the last syllable; as, calico. 
Words of this class have always the written accent when 
the word terminates in a vowel, but the written accent 
is not placed when it terminates in a consonant ; as, 
munician. 

Exception. — ^The last of any person singular of a verb 
ending with a consonant, takes the accent, if it be long; 
as, amarda^ thou shalt love; aerdsj thou shalt be. 

Those words are called breves where the stress of 
the pronunciation is on the penultimate syllable; as, 
manana. "Words of this class have always the written 
accent when they terminate in a consonant; A&jj&ven; 
but not when tney terminate in a vowel; as, tintero. 
The words called esdrujulaa are those where the stress of 
the pronunciation is on the antepenultimate syllable; 
as, nwUfrago : and they always retain the written ac- 
cent. In verbs of the first and third person of the sin- 
gular of the perfect and future of the indicative, the last 
syllable is long, and receives the accent; as, ame^ I 
loved ; am^^ he loved ; a/ma/rSj I shall love. The accent 
remains even when a pronoun is added to these words; 
as, cogitCj I caught thee ; haUeUj I found him. 

Certain adverbs in mente derived from words esdrvr 
julas^ receive the accent on the fifth syllable ; as, hdr- 
ha/ramerUe^ barbarously ; intrepidamente, intrepidly. 

Words terminating in y, preceded by a vowel, which 
forms a diphthong, have no accent ; tneir last syllable 
is always long ; as, convoy. The penultimate vowel is 
long, and receives the accent in the nouns and verbs 
terminated in as^ ia^ ie, to, ua^ tce^ tio; for example, 
vrovecj he provides; JUosqfia, philosophy; desafvo^ chal- 
lenge ; graduo^ I graduate. 

•file accent is, however, suppressed in all the persons 
ending in ia of the imperfect of the indicative and first 
conditional tense, because the i is always long. For the 
same reason, the penultimate vowel of the terminations 
in a«, a<7, au^ ea^ eo^ oa^ oe, oo is not accented. How- 
ever, sometimes these vowels form a diphthong ; then 

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(14) 

the syllable that precedes them is long, and receives the 
accent ; as, heroe^ hero ; linea^ line ; cutdneo^ cutaneous. 
If the final vowels, ta, ie^ to, ua^ ue^ ttOy of words of 
three or more syllables form diphthongs, it is also the 
preceding syllable which is long, but the accent is sup- 
pressed ; as, esperiencic^ experience ; disturhio^ disturb- 
ance. 

The plural of verbs and nouns follows the rule of 
their singular. The only exception is the plural carao- 
tereSy whose long accented syllable is not the same as in 
the singular, which is cardcter^ on the penultimate. 



EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION. 

La lengua del maldiciente, v el oido de quien le oye, 
son hermanos. Oi decir que las personas que aman 4 
todos, por lo comun no aman k nadie. Conduzcame 
Vm.* por donde pueda alcanzar la estimacion de todos 
los hombres de bien. Te digo que en aquella ocurrencia 
se condujo tu hermano con mas acierto de lo que hubiera 
esperado de su poca esperiencia. La envidia siente el 
precio del m6rito, por mas que se esfuerce 4 envilecerle. 
10 saldr6 con la mia, por mas obstaculos que se me 
opongan. Ta iba saliendo el sol, y aun no se habian 
retirado los convidados de la boda. Siendo tan atrevido 
tu hermano, no dudo que saldr4 del aprieto, pero su 
primo, k quien le conozco y que me parece muy sencillo, 
temo mucho que malogrard sus designios y aun que se 
reirdn de 61. Escribi ayer & tu tio para informarle que 
la SeQora T. habia muerto. Siento mucho que no pueda 
venir su hermana de Vm. con nosotrosj)ues creo que 
se habria divertido muchisimo. Ponga V m. un poco de 
agua d la lumbre y trdigamela Vm. luego que hierva. 
Dicen que se rindi6 el general el primero, v la mitad 
del ej6rcito tuvo tambien que rendirse, hallandose ro- 

^ Vm. is an abbreviation of Vuestra Merced or Ueted ; it is a title of 
politeness always used in conversation, and means, '* Toar grace, honor, 
wrorship, sir, you," etc. If it be used in the plural, it is always written 
Vm». ( Vuestrae Mercedes, or Uttedes), 

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deado del enemigo, pero la otra mitad, despnes de haber 
hecho Tina resistencia desesperada, retrocedio a paso 
lento, sin ^ue el enemigo bubiese osado perseffuirlos. 
Yo le predije sn suerte Antes que fuese A aqnel pais, pero 
fii viniere otra vez, por mas desgraciado que fuese, niinca 
olvidar6 que habia sido mi mejor amigo. La dulzura, 
la afabilidad y una cierta urbanidad distinguen al hom- 
bre bien criaao : estos son los signos^or los cuales se le 
conoce. Una madre decia & su hija : una muger no es 
verdaderamente querida de su maiido y de sus hijos, si 
no eumple con sus deberes de esposa y de madre. El 
avaro halla su dicha en abultar un tesoro que no le sirve 
de nada. La easualidad sirve & menudo a los hombres 
mejor de lo que desearan. Yo te digo que un egoista 
no tiene virtud alguna : y ademas dime porqu6 lo ten- 
dria, pues que no le sirve de nada ? No se sabe precisa- 
mente ni quien es el inventor de la brujula, ni en qu6 
tiemjio se empezo a usar de ella. 



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PART I. 








THE 


ARTICLE. 




' 


padre^ 
madre^ 
to huem^ 


the {masc.) 
the (f&m.) 
the (neuter,) 
father, 
mother, 
the good. 


1. 

hermano^ 
hermana^ 

bueno^ lu^na^ 


i 
1 

brother. 

sister. 

and. 

good. 

is. 


]1 padre. 


La madre. 


El hermano y 


la hermana. 



El padre es bueno, la madre es buena. El buen padre, 
la buena madre. El buen hermano, la buena hermana. 
El hermano es bueno, la hermana es buena. 



tio^ 
del^ 
tia^ 
de la^ 
libro^ 



uncle. 

of the (gen.) 

annt. 

ofthe(ffen.f.) 

book. 

to the (dat, m.) 



carta, 


letter. 


dla, 


to the (dat.f.) 


Jul, 


has. 


dado, 


given. 


un. 


a (masc.) 
&(fem.) 


una, 



El tio del ^adre, la tia de la madre. Es el tio de la 
madre, es la tia del padre. El hermano del tio es bueno, 
la hermana de la tia es buena. El es buen tio y buen 
padre. 

El padre ha dado la carta al tio j el libro a la madre. 
El hermano ha dado la carta & la tia. La hermana ha 
dado un libro al padre. La tia ha dado ima phi ma a la 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



, ( IT ) 

Iiermana. El libro del tio es bueno, la carta de la tia eg 
biicna. Eb una buena carta la de la hermana. Es un 
buen libro el del hermano. 



3. 



mi, my. 


yo, 


I. 


tM, thy. 


he. 


have. 


tambieny also. 


tiene, 


has (pasaeM.) 


hOy has. 


enviddOy 


sent. 



Ml padre, mi madre. Tu tio, tu tia. Mi hermano 
tiene un libro y mi hermana tiene una carta. Yo he 
dado nn libro d la madre y ima carta tambien. Tu her- 
mano ha enviado un buen libro al padre. Mi hermana 
ha dado la carta d mi tio. Tu tia tambien ha dado un 
buen libro. Es un buen libro. 



tengo, I have. ccua, honse. 

tieneSj thoa hast. ' jardin, garden. 

tiene, he has. 

Tengo una casa. Tienes un buen padre y 61 tiene una 
buena madre. a Tienes tambien un libro I He escrito 
& la madre. {Has enviado la carta al tio 6 d la tia? 
Mi tio es bueno y mi tia tambien es buena. He visto 
tu libro y tu pluma. Td has visto d mi madre y 61 ha 
visto d mi hermana. { Ha visto Ym. mi casa ? { Has 
visto el jardin ? Tengo un gran jardin. 

5. 
Declension of the Article. 

SlNOUIAB. 

Mate, 
NJi>m el^ 
Gen. del, 
Dat. al, para el, 
Aco. el, al, 
ikhl, de, eon, en, 

par, ein, 

eobre el. 





Fem, 


Neuter. 


the. 


la. 


h. 


of the. 


dela. 


delo. 


to the. 
the. 


d la, para la. 
la,dla. 


d la, para lo. 
lo. 


from, with, in, 


de. eon, etc., 


de, eon, en. 


by, without, 


la. 


eto., lo. 


over the. 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Oen. 
Dat. , 
Ace. 
Abl. 



de las, 

d loSj para los, 
lo8, d los, 
de, eon, en, por, 
sin, sobre los. 



(18) 



Plural. 

the. 
of the. 
to the. 
from the. 

from, with, in, by, 
without, over the. 



Fern 
las, 
de las. 

d las, para las. 
las, dias. 
de, eon, etc., Uu 



Ohs. The neuter article " Zc? " has no plural. 



chiquita, 

grande, 

de tu, 

demi, 

hermoso, 

sombrero, 

esta^ 

escrito, 



edbaJio, 



little. 

great, large, 
of thy. 
of my. 
beautiful, 
hat. 
this, 
written, 
we have, 
horse. 



6. 

VOOABULAET. 
OMOda, 



perdido, . 
Undo, bonita, 
reeibtdo, 
de mi, 
nuestro, a, . 
alto, 
plum/ib, 
hallado. 



neat 
f have you Been ? 
lost. 

pretty, beaiKtifnl 
received, 
of my. 
our. 

high, talL 
pen. 
found. 



JEoieroises. 



The garden of my uncle is large. I have seen the 
horse of thy father. Have you found the book of mv 
sister? My son has lost his hat. My brother is tall, 
but my sister is little. We have seen the horse of thy 
father. I have received this pen from my aunt. We 
have written a letter to our imcle and to our aunt. The 
horse of my brother is beautiful. The house of my 
sister is neat. 



On the Use of thb Abtiolb. 







VOOABULABT. 




y6 amo. 


I love. 


papel. 


paper. 


este. 


this. 


para. 


for. 


es. 


is. 


perro. 


dog. 


came, 


meat 


maestro, 


master. 


di8<Apulo, 


I adraire. 


vahr, 


valor. 


admiro, 


aborrezeo^ 


I hate. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



(19) 



guerr&ro^ 


warrior. 


estd sitvnda^ 


is situated. 


tieio^ 


vice. 


pr^ro^ 


I prefer. 


oriUa^ 


shore. 


regalo^ 


present. 


^ 


his. 


amo^ 


the master. 


faithful. 


animal^ 


animal. 


euflado 


hrother-in-law. 


yo emioy 


I send. 



Mcamples. 

Yo amo al padre. La hija ama k la madre. La plnma 
CB para el euflado. Este papel es para tma earta. Esta 
came es para mi perro. I o envio el discipulo al maes- 
tro. Admiro el valor del guerrero. Aborrezco el vicio. 
Madrid estd situada en la orilla del Manzanares. Pre- 
fiero k Cirlos de todos bus hermanos. Este resale es 

Sara tu amo. Este sombrero espara mi padre. La easa 
e mi hermano es muy alta. El perro de mi madre et 
mi fiel animal. 



8. 



agradahle^ 

percUy 

princesaj 
sdbrosa^ 

ramiUete^ 
principe^ 
amiga^ 
muy^ 





VOOABULABT. 




odor. 


pienso^ 


I think. 


agreeable. 


paladoj 


palace. 


tree. 


niflos^ 


children. 


pears. 


Dios, 


God. 


to my. 


padres^ 


parents, 
flowers. 


princess. 


Jiores, 


savory. 


fruta. 


fruit. 


apples. 


iiemprs, 


always. 


boaqaet. 


perteneee dy 


belongs to. 


prince. 


veeino. 


neighbor. 


friend (Jem,) hornbres^ 


men. 


very. 


dieJia, 


happiness. 



Ecerciaes. 



The odor of these flowers is very agreeable. The fruit 
of this tree is very savory. I prefer pears to apples. I 
have given a bouquet to my sisters. The prince has sent 
a great present to the prmcess. I have received this 
present from one of my friends {fern.) Have you writ- 
ten a letter to your mother? i always think of my 
uncle. This palace belongs to the brother of my friend. 
I love the children of the neighbor. God is the father 
of men. Good children are the happiness of parents. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(20) 



9. 

Declension of Substantives. 



Maae. 



SlKQULAB. 



19 
Q 
D 
A. 



el padre, 
del padre, 
al padre, 
d padre. 



the father, 
of the father, 
to the father, 
from the father. 



lamadre, 
de la madre, 
a la madre, 
lamadre, 



Fern, 
the mother, 
of the mother, 
to the mother, 
from the mother. 



Plubal. 



N. loBpadree, the fathers. 
G. de tospadres,of the fathers. 
D. a hs padres, to the fathers. 
A. he padres, from the fathers. 



las madres, the mothers. 
de las madres, of the mothers. 
a las madres, to the mothers. 
las madres, from the mothers. 



Ohs. 1. All words ending in the singular in a shoil 
vowel, form their plural by adding a ; as, 

e<irt€t, cartas; tiempo, tiempos. 

Those ending in an accentuated vowel, in any consonant, 
or in y, form their plural by addmg es ; as, 

boreegui, horceguies; dWald, dWaldes; Uon, leones; rey, reyes; 
except mama, papdj piSj Bi)fd, majd, (fee. 

Ohs. 2. On the Gender of Nouns. — ^All noune belong- 
ing to men, arts, sciences, rivers, and generally those 
which end in e, o, n, r, ^, u, Z, «, z^ are masculine. 

Those ending in a, d, de, is, en, ion, ente, he, re. hre^ 
erte, are generally feminine. 



el niflo^ 
el homore, 
laflor, 
la guinda, 
d menudo, 
siempre, 
mas altos, 
la manza/na, 
f&tiles^ 





10. 




VOOABULABT. 




the child. 


la per a, 


the pear. 


the man. 


tambien. 


also. 


the flower. 


pequefias. 


small. 


the cherry. 


son,estdn, 


are. 


often. 


quiero, 
elpuilo. 


I love, like. 


always. 


the people. 


higher. 


razondble, 


rational. 


the apple, 
useful. 


la dielta. 


the happiness 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(21) 



Maanvples. 

Los padres son buenos y las madres son tambien bue- 
lias. Los libros de mi tio son Utiles. Las plumas de ini 
hermana son pequetias. Los niflos de este hombre son 
mny razonables. Las hermanas de mi amigo son bucnas. 

LHabeis vosotros visto los libros de mi primo ? Ilenios 
allado los libros j las plumas de vnestro hermano. La 
madre de Carlos quiere las flores y £ los niflos. Los 
aminos de Fernando ban Uegado. 

Dios es el padre de los Hombres. Dios ha dado la 
vida k los hombres. Los buenos rej^es son la dicha de 
los pueblos. Los perros son los amigos de los hombres. 
El caballo es titil a los hombres. 



11. 
Declension of Proper Names. 



Nom. Pedro. 
Gen. de Peart 


Peter. 


Madrid^ 


Madrid. 


>, of Peter. 


de Madrid, 


of Madrid. 


Dat. d Pedro^ 


, to Peter. 


d Madrid, 


to Madrid. 


Ace. Pedroj 


from Peter. 


Madrid, 


from Madri 




Vocabulary. 




Frcmeisco, 


Francis. 


eortapldmas, 
Emilia, 


)enknife. 
Emily. 


Cdrloe, 


Charles. 


Jum^ 


John. 


Vima, 


Vienna. 


Fernando. 


Ferdinand. 


Colonia, 


Cologne. 


J08^ 


Joseph. 


ha llegado. 


has arrived. 


se llama (se 


is called. 


ha partido (ha 


i has left. 


nombra)j 




ealido). 




Enrique^ 


Henry. 


pa/rtir pa/ra, 


to go to. 


gato, 


cat 


jardinero. 


gardener. 



JEkarnples. 

El hijo de nuestra vecina se llama CArlos j su hija so 
llama Emilia. El niflo de nnestro jardinero se llama 
Jnan. La tia de Fernando ha llegado, mas su padre ha 
partido para Madrid. La hermana de Juan ha escrito 
una carta & Carlos. Jose ha reeibido esta pluma de un 
j6ven que se llama Juan. Enrique ha dado su libro a 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(22) . 

Feman<V> y su pliuna d Jose. El primo do Juan ha 
partido para Madrid. El perro de C&rlos es mas fiel 

2ue el de Francisco. Hemos dado nnestro gato peqaeilo 
C&rlos. Este cortaplumas es de Fernando 7 esta 
pliima es de Juan. iTuestra tia estd en Colonia. Mi 
primo estA en Viena. Nuestro amigo es de C6rdova. 

12. 
Examples on the Astiole. 





VOOABULAET. 




deqwiefiy 


of whom. 


ocardarrMj 


remember. 


coru, 


with. 


trdeme^ 


bring me. 


estabze, 


thou wast 


estds trdbajando,doat thou work. 


ayer. 


yesterday. 


<%, 


I give. 


euando^ 


when. 


etneo duros^ 


five dollars. 


en dpaseo^ 


met thee, 
on the walk. 


pleiteadoy 


work. 

bring an action. 


»e htt portado, 


he has behaved. 


alogadoy 


lawyer. 


va'/a conmigo, 


towards me. 


hermoiisimOy 


very beautiful. 


hor/ibre de bien^ honorable man. 


sido TobadOy 


has been robbed. 


Altima^ 


last. 


ladron. 


thiet 


feria, 


fair. 


rin. 


without 


se han tendido 


they have sold. 


perdidoy 


lost 


muchoi^ 


many. 


ayuda, 


help, assistance. 


generos^ 


goods. 


nuncoy 


never. 


hvhieray 


for whom. 


dijUU, 


thou saidst 


would I have. 


eonosscoy 


I know. 


logradoj 


obtained. 




nearly. 


intento^ 


intention. 


ieispUs, 


six feet 


maduraSy 


ripe. 


entregadoy 


Addicted. 


sohre^ 


near. 


leUda, 


drink. 


veinte anos^ 


twenty years. 


deteuida, 


neglects. 


destreza^ 


dexterity. 




completely. 


eonseguido, 


attained. 


deheresy 


duties. 


ventajaSy 


profit 


estaba hctblandoyi was speaking. 


enemigOy 


enemy. 


ace, 


bird. 


9ohre todOy 


before all. 


eomiera. 


I would eat 


guierOj 


I will. 







Es de mi hermano de quien Iiablo. j Con quien esta- 
bas ayer, cuando te tope en el paseo ? Se ha portado 
para conmigo como hombre de bien. En la Ultima feria 
se ban vendido muchos g^neros. jPor quien estds tra- 
bajando? Doy cinco duros por este trabajo. jPor 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(23) 

quien lia pleiteado el abogado? Un hermosfsimo ca- 
ballo ha sido robado por tm ladron. Sin mi amigo 
estaba perdido. Sin tu ayuda nnnca hnbiera logrado 
mi intento. Mi bermano tiene sobre veinte aflos. Mi 
libro est4 sobre la mesa. Por su valor y destreza este 

general ha conseguido muchas ventajas sobre el enemiffo 
obre todo qniero acordarme de lo que me dijiste. Jiii 
padre es ingles, Este hombre es aleman. Conozco k 
nn hombre que tiene cerca de seis pi^s. Mi tio tiene un 

Serro y una perra. Un hombre entregado d la bebida 
escuida enteramente sus deberes. Estaba hablando de 
un ave que vi volar. Oomiera unas manzanas, si la« 
tuviese. Tr&eme algunas peras ; quiero comer unas, si 
estdn maduras. Es un S6neca. 



13. 





VOOABXTLABT. 




m alguna parts^ somewhere. 


no lo tomb. 


he did not take it. 


pedoio^ 


piece, 
bread. 


estdsmalo, 


thoa art ilL 


pan^ 


quiero, 


I will. 


negro. 


black. 


ti, 


thee. 


heestado, 


I have been. 


pon, 


lay. 


teatro, 


theatre. 


mesa. 


table. 


quieresy 


wilt thon. 


estd, 


lies. 


porew, 


for it (that). 


higos. 


figs. 


no puedoy 


I cannot. 


dime, 


giTe me. 


ffolaiuUty 


Datohman. 


naranjas, 


oranges. 


FranceMy 


French lady. 


sefloras. 


ladies. 


Bapanoly 


Spaniard. 


hay. 


there are. 



tUto, seen. 

Eaiercises. 

Of whom do vou speak? I speak of the man who 
was here yesteraay. The house belongs to the son of 
my friend. I have seen this man somewhere. Hast 
thou seen the garden? I have given a piece of black 
bread to the dog. I have been m the theatre with my 
father. My mother has taken a walk with my sister. 
Why wilt tbou work? I do not take it for that. 
Thou art ill ; I will work for thee. Lay the book on 
the table. My hat lies on the chair. One cannot write 
without pens. My uncle is a Dutchman ; my mother, a 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(24) 

French lady. I know a man who is a Spaniard. I Lare 
Been a German. I have eaten some ngs. Give me a 
few {algwnas) oranges. I want to eat a few {ynas). 1 
spoke of some ladies who were here. There are some 
liouses which are very beautiful. 

14. 

On Adjectives. 

1. Adjectives agree in their gender and number with 
the substantive to which they belong, and are generally 
placed after the nouns. 

2. Adjectives form their plurals in the same manner 
as nouns — ^namely, by adding s or ea. 

3. Adjectives ending in o^ ete, or otej form their femi- 
nine in (T ; as, 

hermoso^ hermosa^ beantifal. 

docto^ doeta, learned. 

altoU^ altoU^ very tall. 

4. Most of the adjectives ending in an^ on^ or^ add an 
a for the feminine ; as, 

haragan^ haragana^ idle. 

6. Those ending in other letters generally remain tho 
same for both genders ; as, 

un honibre eortSs, a polite man. 

una muger eortSs, a polite woman. 

6. National adjectives ending with a consonant, take 
a in the feminine ; as, 

francSs^Jrancesa; inglSs^ inglesa; espanol^ eapatlola. 

7. AlffimOj huenOy mdlo^ ni/ngwno^ una, primero^ ter- 
eerOy poatreroy drop the o if placed before a substantive 
masculine; as, 

huen amo, good master. 

el primer homlre^ the first man. 

Santo drops the last syllable before the proper names 
of saints; as, 

San PedrOy San Juan. 

Except Santo Tainas. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(23 ) 



15. 



- 


VOOABULAIIY. 




M 


Ugly. 


puertasy 


doors. 


eortes, 


polite. 


chieaa^ 


small. 


tambien. 


also. 


ventana^ 


windo>r. 


primaSy 


cousins (Jem) 




yellow. 


fk-tuosas^ 


virtQoas. 


verde^ 


green. 


descortes^ 


impolite. 


lengua^ 


language. 


nieta^ 


^rand-danghter. 


fdcil. 


easy. 


perezosos. 


azy. 


aprender^ 
alemana. 


to learn. 


viejo^ 


old. 


German. 


auTij 


Btill. 


dificil. 


^difficult. 


javen, 


young. 


honrado^ 


honest 


parece^ 


appears. 


pronunciar^ 


to pronounce. 


alegrej 


lively. 


cabelloa^ 


hair. 


dbuelOy 


grandfather. 


hlaneoa^ 


white. 


leon. 


lion. 


OJ08, 


eyes. 


nei. 


faithful. 


negroSy 


black. 



El padre es bueno y la madre es buena. Los bijos 
Bon malos y las hijas son buenas. La tia es fea, pero 
la abuela es aun nermosa. Mi cufiado es un hombre 
cort^s ; mi cufiada tambien es cort6s. Las primas son 
virtuosas. El hermano es descortds. El primo j la 
nieta son perezosos. El tio es viejo ; tambien la tia es 
vieja. Ml eniiado es aim joven. El abuelo es alegre, 
y tambien la abuela es alegre. La easa es grande. He 
v^isto un g;ran leon. La amiga es fiel, y tu amigo tam- 
bien es lieL Las puertas son muy enicas. Las ven- 
tanas chicas son amarillas. El criado es infiel. El 
drbol es verde. La lengua espaflola es faeil de apren- 
der. La lengua alemana es dificil de pronunciar. Tu 
padre tiene ya (los) cabellos blancos. La hermana tiene 
(los) ojos neffTos. Mi vecino es un buen hombre. Mi 
amigo es un hombre honrado. 



mucTiochOy 
trcuoiesOy 

e^p4909y 



boy. 

naughty. 

thick. 



16. 

VOOABULABT. 

ItberaleSy 
azuly 



liberal, 
flowfr. 
blue. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(26) 



miel, 


honey. 


pero^ maSj sino 


, hut. 


comprado, 


bought. 


/also, 


folse. 


dulee, 


sweet. 


tinta^ 


ink. 


diestro^ 


clever. 


aguQ>^ 


water. 


achacosa. 


poorly. 


ealienUy 


warm. 


incomodo, 


inconvenient. 


nieve, 


snow. 


modestaSf 


modest. 


fria, 


cold. 


amablea^ 


amiable. 


igjwrantes, 


ignorant. 



The hair of my mother is white. My sister's eyes ai'e 
blue. The trees of the garden are green. I have a 
beautiful horse. This boy is naughty. The sisters are 
ignorant. The trees of mv garden are very thick. The 
loney which I have bougnt is sweet. The good uncle 
*8 not at home, and the sjood aunt is ill. The brother is 
verv clever. The grandmother is poorly. The sisters 
and the cousins are happy. My black hat is very in- 
convenient. Your sisters are modest, virtuous, and 
amiable. The young man is liberal. I have seen a 
blue flower in the garden of the aunt. The dog of my 

f'andfather is faitnful ; but the cat of my aunt is false, 
write with black ink. I have a black dog at home. 
The water is warm. The snow is cold. 



17. 
On the Government of Adjectives. 

Ohs. — ^Adjectives in Spanish generallv require eithei 
(fe, euy or a before their regimen. De^ if it be part of 
ixe noun ; ^ if it denote a qualitv ; rf, if the regimen of 
the adjective be the noun to which the quality of the 
adjective is directed. 





YOOABULAET. 




tive^ 


lives. 


Ugunibres, 


vegetables. 


alijo, 


something. 


trae^ 


carries. ^ 


Ujos, 


distant. 


sombrero, 


hat. 


eiudad^ 


town. 


tereiopelo. 


velvet. 


iesprecialle, 


despicable. 


adomado^ 


adorned. 


incapaz^ 


incapable. 


blue ribboc 


tymeUr^ 


to commit. 


delante de. 


before. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(27) 



tal cosa^ 


such a thing. 


pan duro, 


hard bread. 


pesar^ 


grief. 


vino tinto^ 


red wine. 


llegada^ 


arrival. 


salud^ 


health. 


'S: 


])ale. 


habilidad^ 


cleverness. 


full. 


sino^ 


but. 


viruelas. 


small-pox. 


merece. 


deserves. 


lleva. 


wears. 


pena dura, 


hard punisltiiicut 


vestidOy 


dress. 


hijo, 


eon. 


uda^ 


silk. 


hijos^ 


children. 


segnro^ 


surely. 


enganar, 


to cheat. 


estd de guardia^ he is on the 


d nadUy 


nobody. 




watch. 


aunque^ 


although. 


talega^ 


bag. 


recto. 


justly. 


oro^ 


gold. 


altanera, 


haughty. 


quedd inmSvil^ 


he remained un- 


earitativa, 


charitable. 




moved. 


dichoso. 


happy. 


temor^ 


fear. 


pintor, 


painter. 


estoy deaebso, 


I wish. 


poeta, 


poet. 


hartadOj 


satisfied. 







Mcam^les. 

Vive algo lejos de la ciudad. Mi vecino es un horn 
bre despreciable. Mi amigo es incapaz de eometer tal 
cosa. Estoy cierto Je lo que digo. Mi madre muere 
de pesar. Esta eontento de la llegada del padre. Es 

f)alido de color. Estd lleno de viraelas. Mi madre 
leva un vestido de seda. Esta seguro de bus amigos. 
Mi hermano estd de guardia. Esta talega esta llena de 
oro. Quedo inm6vil de temor. Estoy deseoso de ver 
& mi primo. El principe est4 deseoso de gloria. Se ha 
hartado de came y de legumbres. Ella trae un som- 
brero de terciopelo, adomado de una cinta azul. He 
yisto un hermoso perro delante de la puerta. El pobre 
liombre ha recibido un gran pedazo de pan duro. El 
vino tinto es bueno para la salud. La habilidad no con- 
siste en saber todo,- sino en ser titil para algo. El hom- 
bre malo merece una pena dura. Mi tio es diclioso, 
pues tiene hijos obedientes. El hombre honrado es in- 
capaz de engafiar d nadie. Mi tio, annque sever o, es 
t'usto y recto. Aunque altanera, es caritativa. Es un 
lombre diclioso, pues esta eontento con lo que tiene. 
El primo es un gran pintor ; su tio tambien fue un gran 
poeta. Dame de comer. 



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I 28 ) 

18. 

Diminutives. 

The Diminutives serve to decrease a word in quality, 
and, imply something small, pretty, or dear. Thoso 
most in use end in ico, ica^ iUoj iUa^ cillOj dUa^ itOj ita^ 
zuelo^ sicela; as, 



homhrecicOy hombredlh^ 
mugercita, mugerzuela^ 



a little man. 
a little woman. 



Those ending in zudo^ Ulo, and dllo denote contempt, 
pity, or ugliness. 



hermanito^ 

toda solita^ 

sentada^ 

mesita^ - 

earitay 

redondita^ 

hoquitOy 

rosada^ 

manecitaSy 

chiquitasy 

pareciay 

angelitOy 

era^ 

placer^ 

devety 

peceeitOy 

conoceSy 

esBy 

hornbrecilloy 

somhrerilloy 

capotdy 

ladroncilhy 

pintorcilloy 

mozalbetey 

autorcillo, 

easillay 

eallejueUiy 

ohrillay 

no iirven sino. 



Vocabulary. 




little brother. 


aquelloBy 


those. 


quite alone. 


muchachitaSy 


httle girls. 


sitting. 


ocupadaSy 


occupied. 


little table. 


cuartitOy 


little room. 


pretty face. 


escrihiendOy 


writing. 


round. 


ca/rtitOy 


small letter. 


little mouth. 


otray 


other. 


red. 


limpiando, 


cleaning. 


pretty hands. 


muehlecitoSy 


little furniture. 


small. 


terceray' 


third. 


appeared. 


acariciandOy 


caressing. 


a little angel. 


perritOy 


little dog. 


was. 


euartay 


fourth. 


pleasure. 


dandOy 


giving. 


to see. 


pajaritOy 


ittle bird. 


little fish. 


distraeVy 


distract. 


knowest. 


muchacMllOy 


little boy. 


this, that. 


detras de la 


behind the little 


ugly man. 
little hat. 


eaaitay 


house. 


hombrezuelOy 


man. 


cloak. 


hayy 


there are. 


little thief. ' 




jardineitOy 


little garden. 


])ainter. 


s 


rodeadoy 


surrounded. 


ibp. 


S- 


arbolitOy 


little tree. 


author. 


'S 


adornadoy 


adorned. 


house. 




florecitaiy 


small flowers* 


lane. 


•% 


rineancitOy 


little corner. 


work. 


• 


cenadoTy 


bower. 


only serve. 









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(29) 

Que bonita es tu hennanita ; la he visto toda soiita, 
sentada en una mesita ; con sn carita redondita, su bo- 
quita rosada y sus manecitas tan chiquitas parecia nn 
angelito. Era nn placer el ver aquellas mncliachitae 
ocupadas en su cuartito ; la una escribiendo una cartita, 
la otra limpiando los mueblecitos, la tercera acariciando 
un perrito y la cuarta dando de comer k un pajarito. 
Quiero comer un pececito. % Conoces 4 ese hombrecillo 
con Bu capote ? Parece un ladroncillo. El hermano es 
un pintorcillo. Aquel mozalbete es un autorcillo que 
vive en una casilla de una de esas callejuelas. Las 
obrillas de esos autorcillos no sirven sino para distraer a 
lori muchachillos. Detras de la casita de ese hombre- 
zuelo hay un jardincito, rodeado de unos arbolitos verdes 
y adomado de algunas florecitas ; y en el rinconcito hay 
un cenador muy bonito. 

19. 

Ecerdses. 

Thy little sister -v^nt^ with a pretty basket^ on her 
arm,^ full of flowers.* I have seen thy dear mother.* 
The little brother had a pretty hat and a small stick.* 
He appeared to be an ugly man. This little angel took 
a small pen^ in its dear little hand and intended to write. 
Lay this beautiful flower on the little table. What do 

iron say* to my pretty little dog? Is it not a beautiful 
iltle animal ?® Who is this little fellow ? He is a poor 
author ; he has written a little book," which is worth 
nothing." 

> iba. s canastillo. ' brazo. * florecitafi. madrccita. * baatoncibu 
plumita. s^qu6 dices? * animalito. i" libr/to. i^ no vale nada. 

20. 

AUGMENTATIVES. 

The augmentatives serve to increase a word in quality, 
and imply something large or tall. They are formed bv 
adding on^ achon^ azo^ onazo^ or oU, 

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( 80 ) 

Tlie termination azo frequently signifies the blow or 
injury caused by the object to wnich it is added; as, 





IdtigOy a 


, whip. 






un latigazo^ a 


. very large whip. 




un latigazo^ a 


, stroke with a 


whip. 




VOOABULAEY. 




hombre^ 


man. 


sablazo^ 


cut with a sabro. 


oidoy 


heard. 


puflalada^ 


a stab with a 


estruendo^ 


report. 




poniard. 


pistoletazo^ 


pistol-shot. 


navajaday 


a stab with a 


cafionazo^ 


cannon-shot. 




razor. 


no €8 ni uno 


it is neither tlie 


hombronazoy 


jreat man. 


ni otrOj 


one nor the 


ventrezuelOy 


arge stomach. 




other. 


eorpanehoTiy 


large body. 


eacopetazo, 


gun-shot. 


puestOy 


placed. 


dispard^ 


he. discharged. 


pemazaSy 


stout legs. 


Tiombrachon^ 


a great strong 


cabezon^ 


big head. 




man. 


anchaa espaldas, broad shoulders. 


disparate^ 


silliness. 


calabaza^ 


pumpkin. 


fusilazo^ 


musket-shot. 


cara de pascua^ a sweet friendly 


acabe de tirar, 


hehas just fired. 




face. 


contrabanduta, 


, a smuggler. 


narigon^ 


large nose. 


rriato^ 


killed. 


bocaza^ 


large mouth. 


guardacostas^ 


coast-guard. 


hornilloy 


oven. 


salieron, 


went out. 


sefloroTh, 


a squire. 


h^idos^ 


wounded. 


ricacTion, 


a very rich man. 


refriega^ 


fight. 


muchachona^ 


tall, strong girl. 


cual tenia^ 


sometimes the 


mujerona, 


large woman. 




one, sometimes 


bigoteSy 


mustache. 




the other had. 


picaron. 


great thief. 


lanzazOy 


thrust with a 


mocetona^ 


young strong 




lance. 




girl. 


bastonazo^ 


blow with a 


criada. 


maid-servant 


garrotazo, 


stick. 


perdizy 


partridge. 



Examples, 

jllombrel has oido ese estruendo? Si, ha sido un 
pistoletazo. No, hombre ! es un canonazo. i Que dis- 
parate ! es un escopetazo que acaba de tirar ese contra 
bandista y que ha niatado aquel guardacostas. No cf 
ui uno ni otro ; es un fusilazo que dispar6 aquel honi- 
brachon y que ha matado una perdiz. Todos salioron 
beridos de la refriega ; cual tenia un lanzazo, cual un 



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( 31 ) 

sablazo, cual un bastonazo, cual un garrotazo, cual una 
punalada, cual una na^ajada. Pero lo que hacia mas 
ridiculo & aquel hombronazo era aquel ventrezuelo, 
aquel corpanchon, puesto sobre esas pemazas, aquel 
cabezon entre esas anchas espaldas, que parece mas uua 
calabaza ; aquella eara de pascua, con su narigon en el 
medio, y esa bocaza. que parece un homillo. Aquel 
sefioron, que estaba aqui, es un ricachon. jQue mu- 
chachona es aquella? jCudl? aquella mugerona que 
tiene bigotes? Aquel muchachon parece un picaron. 
Esa- mocetona que veo siempre aqui, i es su criada de 
V^md.? 

21. 
The Compabison of Adjectives. 

1. The Comparaiwe. — ^The Spanish adiective has three 
degrees of comparison : the positivej the comparative, 
and the superlative. The comparative is formed by' 
placing nui8 (more) before the positive ; as, 

rico^ rich. mas ricOy richer. 

prudente^ prudent. mas prudenU^ more prudent. 

pohre^ poor. maspobre^ poorer. 

frondoso^ leafy. masfrondoso^ jnore leafy. 

Ohs. — As, following the comparative, is always trans- 
lated by que, 

2. The Comparison of Inferior%ty is expressed by 
placing menos (less) before the adjective ; as, 

m^noB vi^o^ les3 old. 

menos prudente, less prudent. 

es menos prudente que usted, he is less prudent than yon. 



no 
no 



Zi::f'}notsom«cb. S- ^TnC! '^'^ " ^''^ 



Tisne menos valor y m^nos enemigos que usted. 
He has less courage and fewer enemies than you. 

Xo tiene tanto dinero^ tanta fi/rm^za^ tantos amigos eomo usted^ 
lie has not so much money, less firmness, fewer friends tlian you, 

tan — ( 
tanto - 



- como. ) 

' > as — as. 
• — como, f 

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(32) 
22. 

VOOABULAKT. 

q%i6 el tuyo^ as thine. obrb^ acted. 

rey^ the king. mas de lo que^ more thnn. 

reiTia^ the queen. se eree, they believe. 

criado^ man-servant. talega^ purse. 

trahajddor, industrious. 

Examples. 

Mi hermano es mas rico que Juan. Felipe es mas 
pobre que Manuel. Mi reloj es mas hermoso que el de 
mi prime. Este drbol es mas alto j mas frondoso que 
el que hemes visto en tu jardin. Mi sombrero es mas 
pequeno que el de su hermano de Vmd. Mi casa es 
mas ffrande que la de Vmd. El perro de su vecino es 
mas fiel que el de nuestra tia. El perro de mi cunado 
es mas vigilante que el de mi prime. El tema de su 
liermana es mas dificil que el suyo ; pero el de mi primo 
es aun mas dificil. La vecina de mi tia tiene un perrito 
que es mas liel que el de su jardinero; pero elmio es 
aun mas fiel. Mi obra es mas dificil que la tuya y que 
la de tu hermano. Pepe es mas aplicado, rico y avaro 
que todos sus hermanos. 

Mi tio es m6nos viejo que el tuyo. Tu hermano es 
menos prudente que tu hermana. El rey tiene m6nos 

Srudencia que el principe. La muger no es tan pru- 
ente como Vmd. El cunado no tiene tantos niflos, ni 
tantas riquezas como su hermano. El abuelo es tan rico 
como el padre de estos nines. El rey es tan bueno como 
la reina. El criado es tan fiel y trabajador como la 
criada. Mi libro es tan util como el tuyo. Mi primo 
es tan docto como tu hermano. El general obro con 
tanta prudencia como valor. Carlos tiene mas dinero 
de lo que se cree. Esta casa cuesta mas dinero de lo 
i|ue se habia creido. 

23. 

Exercises. 

Tlie sun^ is larger than the moon.^ The dog is more 
faithful than the cat. Thy book is more usefuP than 

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(33) 

that* of thy cousin. The bonnet of thy sister is smallei 
than that of my mother. The friend of our uncle is 
richer than that of his brother. He has more money 
than I, and I work more than he. The trees of my gar- 
den are larger than those of the wood.* She is less old 
tlian she appears. I am less inclined* to believe you 
than jour orother. The niece of this man is not as 
l)cautiful as I have been told. Ttis book is as beauti- 
fully boimd^ as that of my brother. 

> el sol. « la luna. « mas util. * qne el de. » bosque. • inclinado. 
encnademado. 

The Swperldtive. 

The superlative is formed in three ways : Bj placing 
either d^ la, loj before the comparative mas; or by pla- 
cing muy (very) before the positive; or thirdly, by add- 
ing simo to the ending of the positive. 



^ 


VOOABULART. 




dveees^ 


sometimes. 


ir d aeoatarse^ 


to go to bed. 


96 engana^ 


deceives. 


lo mejor^ 


the best. 


eama/rca^ 


country. 


lopeor. 


the worst. 


en el haile^ 


at the ball. 


sueedeTy 


hapneo 


quizds^ 


perhaps. 


muchUimOy 


very much, many. 


muy hermosa^ 


very beautiful. 


comereianUy 


merchant. 


caHtativo^ 


charitable. 


Ji&Z' 


very rich, 
credible. 


landadoso^ 


kind. 


hermofAsimo^ 


very beautiful. 


paupirrimoy 


very poor. 


amaibil^ima^ 


very amiable. 







JBka7nj[>les. 

El hombre mas prudente 4 veces se engafia. Las mas 

hcrmosas sefioras ae la comarca estaban en el baile. Mi 

tio es el hombre mas prudente que conozco y mi tia la 

niuger mas hermosa que en mi vida he visto. Mi padre 

es (3 hombre mas rico de la ciudad. La casa de mi tia 

es la mas alta de la calle y la mas hermosa de toda la 

ciudad. La seflora que estaba ayer aqui, jno es verdad 

que era muy hermosa ? Mi tio tiene un corazon muy 

bondadoso. Don Carlos es muy caritativo. Tus her- 

2© 

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(31) 

manas son muy afables. La casa de mi primo es muy 
hermosa. En el cuarto habia una grandisima mesa, 
cubierta de un bermosisimo mantel. La hermana de 
mi amigo es amabilisima. Paris es una ciudad hermo- 
Bisima. Tenemos muchisimo que hacer. Estos campos 
son fertilisimos. Tti dices que aquel eomerciante es 
riquisimo; pero yo he oido decir, y lo tengo de un 
hombre fidedigno, que es pauperrimo. Lo mejor que 
puedas hacer es ir d acostarte. Lo peor que le pueda 
suceder es quizds que le roben y le maten. 



25. 

Exercises. 

The most amiable^ man is not always the best.^ The 
ugliest man has often^ the best heart. Politeness* is the 
best recommendation. London** is the largest town in. 
t]urope. "We are rich, but our neighbor is the richest 
man m the town.* Do you know which mountain is the 
highest? Do you think that this church* is the most 
beautiful in Europe ? He is the most celebrated^ poet 
of this country. The book which I have bought? is 
7ery useful. The brother of the king is very ill. The 
sister of the queen is very little. I have received a 
very long letter.* They say^® that merchant is the 
richest man in the town. It is said that the king and 
the queen are very beneficent." 

» amable. « mejor. « k menudo. * cortesia. » L6ndrc8. • iglesia. 
» mas o^lebre. • he comprad(X » una carta muy larga. »» dicen. " b«ne- 
ficentisimos. 

26. 



Ireegular Comparisons. 



huenOy good. 

malo^ bad. 

grande^ great. 

vequeUo^ little. 

oajo^ bad. 

alto^ high. 



mejor^ better. 
peor, worse. 
mayor^ greater. 
menor^ less. 
inferior^ worse. 
superior^ higher. 



Superlative, 

Sptimo^ the best. 

pesimoy the worst. 

mdximo, greatest. 

minimo, least. 

infimo^ the worst. 

supremo the highest 



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( 35 ) 

VOOABULAET. 

hfrmaim mayor^ the eldest sister, sale^ conies from, 

htrmano menor^ the younger cldse mas %nfima^ the lowest olasAi 

brother. la mas minima^ the least. 

quiere Tiacerse he wishes to be- diner al^ great deal of 

soldado^ come a soldier. money. 

nperior^ superior. hlando^ soft. 

Moa7riples. 

Mi hermana mayor no esta en casa. El hermano 
menor quiere hacerse soldado. Annque menor en nii- 
inero, fiiinios los mas fuertes. Esta fieiiora, aunque 
superior en talento 4 las otras, sale de la clase mas 
innma. Las me j ores frutas se hallan en Espana. El 
mejor elima es el de Italia. La mas minima cosa que 
yo quiera comprar, me cuesta un dineral. Tu primo ha 
de tener el corazon blando, pues por la mas minima 
cosa Uora. 

27. 

Mi>ercises. 

My eldest sister is on the point^ of going^ to Paris. 
The best fruits of Switzerland* are not so good as the 
worst* of Spain. These pears are better than those. 
Thy brother is a boaster;* the least thing makes him 
boast.^ Although inferior in talent, he can speak^ better 
than his brother. I have chosen^ the best book of all. 
My younger sister will marry^ within^^ a month." My 
brotner is taller than you, but my father is the tallest 
of all. This church is higher than that house, but the 
tree is the highest. 

» e8t4 para. « partir. « la Sniza. * las peores. » fanfaiTon. • vana- 
glorioso. » sabc hablar. « escogido. » casar. " dentro de. " mes. 

28. 
On the CcNSTRUonoN of a Sentence with "Tanto" 

AND "CUANTO." 
VOOABTJLAET. 

cuanto mas — the more — the mUntras mas — the more — the 

tanto mas^ more. www, more. 

estd espuesto^ is exposed. prodigo^ extravagant 

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(36) 



que le roben^ 
cuanto menos — 

tanto menos^ 
exigir^ 
acreedores^ 
noticia^ 
me interesa^ 
cuanto estoy in- 

teresado^ 
en el asunto^ 
(Hchosos, 
en el campo^ 
dcsffracicidos, 



to be robbed. 


avaro, 


the less — the 


jdven^ 


less. 


ociosoy 


demand. 


deseo8y 


the creditors. 


dich4i^ 


the notice. 


pemicioaoB^ 


interests me. 


se enriquece, 


as I am inter- 




ested. 


facilidad, 


in the matter. 


distinguir. 


happy. 


debiles, 


in the country. 


sed^ 


unhappy. 





avannoua. 
youfii. 
lazy, 
wishes, 
the luck, 
pernicious, 
he enriches him- 
self, 
facility, 
to distinguish, 
weak, 
the thirst. 



Examples. 



Cuanto mas rico uno es, tanto mas esta espnesto k 
que le roben. Cuanto ni6no8 dinero tengo, tanto menos 
pueden exigir de mi los acreedores. Esta noticia me in- 
teresa tanto mas, cuanto estoy interesado en el asunto. 
Cuanto mas diehosos nos hallamos en ei campo, tanto 
mas desgraciados somos en la eiudad. Mientras mas 
prodigo es tu tio, tanto mas avara es tu tia. Cuanto 
mas aplicado es aquel joven, tanto mas ocioso es su her- 
mano. Cuanto menos deseos, tanta mas dicha. Cuanto 
mas instructivos son los buenos libros, tanto mas pemi- 
ciosos son los malos. Cuanto menos trabajador es el 
hombre, tanto menos se enriquece. Mi primo es tantc 
mas aplicado al estudio, cuanto mas facilidad tiene par> 
aprender. No puedo distinguir estas letras, son tar 
debiles mis ojos. Cuanto mas bebe, tanto mayor eg 
Bu sed. 

29. 

EsceT(^es. 

1 do not know wliat may be the matter with thee,^ 
my dea-r Sanzo. The more one laughs^ here, the more 
thou criest ; the more they entreat thee' to surrender to 
pleasure,* the more thou art sad.* It is now* a quarter 
of an hour^ that I have observed^ thee, the more I look 
at^ thee, the less I understand*® why thou criest" so 
much. Ah I*^ my dear father,^' vou do not know what 
I have to suffer. Everv one** has something** against 
me ;*^ and the more I reflect on the treatment*^ which i 



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(37) 

experience, the less I can comprehend what has occa- 
sioned^® it. As indulgent'^ as you were formerly,^ so 
severe are you now. 

1 qu4 te falta. « rie. * te animen. « &, para alearrarto. » te entristecea. 
• piles. » cuarto de hora. • observo. » miro. " comprendo. " haco 
llorar. »> ay. " querido padre. " cada uno. " algo. »• contra mi. 
" tratamiento. ^* ocasionado. ^* indulgente. ^^ intes. 

30. 

Numeral Adjectives. 

1. Cardinal Numbebs. 



UTio^ una 1 

dos 2 

tres 3 

euaPro * 4 

einco 5 

sets .6 

§iete 7 

oeho 8 

nueve 9 

diez 10 

once 11 

doce 12 

1/rec6 13 

catoree * . . 14 

quince 15 

diez y seis 16 

diez y siete 17 

diez y ocho 18 

diez y nueve 19 

veinte 20 

vcintiuno 21 

veintidos 22 

veintitres 23 

teinti^uatto 24 

veinticinco 25 

veinUseis 26 

veintisiete 27 

veintiocho 28 

From dos (two) up to ciento (hundred), inclusively, the 
numbers are plural, and common to both genders ; as, 
three men, tres hombres ; four women, cuatro mujerea. 

From doscientos to novecientos^ inclusively, the termi- 
nation OS is changed into as for the feminine; as, 
three hundred miles, trescientas millus. 



veintinueve 29 

treinta 80 

treinta y uno 81 

eua/renta 40 

cincuenta 50 

gesenta 60 

setenta 70 

ochenta 80 

noventa 90 

diento...., 100 

ciento y uno 101 

ciento y diez 110 

do8ciento8-as 200 

tresdentoa-as 800 

euatrocientoS'OS 400 

quinientoB'OS 500 

8eisciento8-as 600 

8eteciento8-a8 700 

oehociento8-a8 800 

novecientoS'OS 900 

mil 1000 

mil y ciento 1100 

mil y do8ciento8'a8 1200 

dos mil 2000 

diez mil 10,000 

den mil 100,000 

millon 1,000,000 



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( 38 ) 

31. 

^ Emrrvples. 

Mi tio tiene dos casas ; en la una de ellas hay catorce 
cuartos, tres salas y dos cocinas ;^ y en la otra treinta y 
cuatro ventanas,^ diez puertas' y un ^an patio.* En mi 
enarto hay dos mesas, tres sofas, diez y echo sillas* y 
siete espejos.* Nuestro veeino tiene cinco nifios; tres 
hijos y dos hijas. En su jardin hay veintidos drboles. 
En casa de mi prime ha,y cuatro gates, doce perros, ocho 
caballos y seis criados. Una semana^ tiene siete dias,* 
un mes treinta, y el ano trescientos sesenta y cinco dias. 
Crist6bal Colon descubrio^ la America en 1492 y murio^® 
en Valladolid el dia veinte de Mayo^^ de mil quinientos 
y seis. Louvel asesino" al duque de Berry el dia trece 
de Febrero, de mil ochocientos y veinte, y fu6 guillo- 
tinado el ocho de Junio del mismo aiio. jSabes que 
hora es? Oreo que son las cuatro. Creo que acaban 
de dar^^ las cinco. No,' Seiior, van & dar^* las cinco y 
media. Manana d las ocho de la mafiana^* ir6^^ 4 casa 
de mi tio y quedare" hasta las cuatro de la tarde.^® Ju- 
gdmos^^ ayer'^ d los naipes^^ desde^ las cinco y media de 
la tarde hasta'® las diez m6nos un cuarto" de la noche. 
Me acost6^ a media noche.^® Ya eran las doce y media 
cuando vine d casa. 

» kitchen. ■ windows. » doors. * court-yard. » chairs. • looking- 
glass. » week. ■ days. » discovered. *<> died. »» May. *■ assassinated. 
»* has just struck. " is going to strike. " to-morrow morning at eight 
o'dooW. " I shall go. " I shall remain. " afternoon. " we plaved. 
>• yesterday. >* cards. » from. «» until. «* a quarter. » I went to bed. 
*• midnight. 

32. 

Exercises. 

London contains 12,000 streets, 500 churches, 300,000 
houses, and more than 2,000,000 of inhabitants. Paris 
contains 26,860 houses, 1,119 streets, eighty-seven 
squares, fifty-six gates,^ twenty-three bridges,^ twenty- 
nine markets,^ eleven prisons,* twelve palaces,^ eighteen 
theatres, thirty-eight churches, twenty-five hospitals;* 
the public library^ contains 800,000 printed^ volumes,* 

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72,000 manuscripts,^^ and 5,000 prints.** Ttis morning, 
at ten o'clock, I was*^ in your nouse, and the servant 
told me that you would not come^ home before two 
o'clock this afternoon. My father left on the 18th of 
last month,** and will arrive to-morrow evening at six 
o'clock. What is the time ? It has just struck two. It 
IS midnight. It will soon strike three o'clock. It will 
soon strike half-past four. 

> puertas. « puentes. » mercados. * prisiones. » pala^ios. • hospi- 
tales. ^ biblioteca. • impresos. • volumenes. i" manusoritos. " l&minaR. 
" he estodo. >' vendria. i« mes pasado. 



33. 

Obdinal Numbetrs. 



The Ordinal Numbers are used in speaking of sover- 



as. 



Fernando cuarto^ 
Felipe segundo^ 



Ferdinand the Fourth. 
Philip the Second. 



primero or prtmo^ 

segundo^ 

tercero or tereio^ 

cuarto^ 

quinto^ 

sextOy 

septimo^ 

octavOy 

nonOj 

decimo^ 

undecimo^ 

ditodScimOj 

deeimo tereio^ 

decimo cua/rto^ 

deeimo quinto^ 

decimo sexto, 

decimo s^ptimo^ 

decimo octavo^ 

decimo nono. 



first. 

second. 

third. 

fourth. 

fifth. 

sixth. 

seventh. 

eighth. 

ninth. 

tenth. 

eleventh. 

twelfth. 

thirteenth. 

fourteenth. 

fifteenth. 

sixteenth. 

seventeenth. 

eighteenth. 

nineteenth. 



Tigesimo, 

vigSsimo primero, 

trigesimo, 

cuadragSsimOy 

quincuaghimo, 

seQsagisim>o, 

septuageaimo, 

octogisimo, 

noTiagemno, 

centisimo, 

ducentesimo, 

trecentSsimo, 

euadringentesimo, 

quingentisimo, 

sescenUsimo, 

septingentesimOj 

octogentesimo, 

non^entesimo, 

miUsimo, 



twentieth. 

twenty-first. 

thirtieth. 

fortieth. 

fiftieth. 

sixtieth. 

seventieth. 

eightieth. 

ninetieth. 

100th. 

200th. 

800th. 

400th. 

500th. 

600th. 

700th. 

800th. 

900th. 

1000th. 



3. OOLLKCTIVE NUMBEBS. 



un par, a couple. una veintena, a score. 

media docena, half a dozen. una centena, a hundred. 

decena, ten pieces. un miliar, a thousand. 

una doeena, a dozen. decena de miliar, tens of tliou' 

quineena, fifteen pieces. sands. 



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la mitad^ 
$1 tercio^ 
el c^MtrU. 



liable^ 

triple^ 

cicddruploy 

quintuple^ 

sextuplo^ 



4. Fractional Numbers. 

the half. el quintOj 

the third part. el sexto^ 
tlie fourth part. 

6. Proportional Numbers. 



double. 

treble. 

fourfold. 

fivefold. 

sixfold. 



decuplo^ 
'CintuplOj 
una ««?, 
dos teceSy 
tres veces^ 



the fifth part. 
the sixth part. 



tenfold, 
hundred-fold, 
once, 
twice, 
three times. 



6. To ask wLat time it is, tlie Spaniards use the chi- 
dinal numbers with tJie article la or lasj suppressing tlie 
word " hour ;" as, 



What time is it? 

It is one o'clock* 

It is past one. 

It is a quarter to two. 

It is three o'clock. 

It is a quarter to three. 

It is four o'clock. 

The afternoon. 

The evening. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon 

At nine o'clock in the evening. 

At midnight. 



^ QuS hora es f 

E% la una, 

Es la unapasada. 

Son las dos mSnos un euarvo. 

Son las tres. 

Son las tres menos cuarto. 

Son las cuatro. 

La ta/rde. 

La noche. 

A las cuatro de la tarde, 

A las nueve de la noche, 

A las doce de la noche. 



7. Except the first day of the month, all the other 
days are expressed by a cardinal number, preceded by 
the article el and the word dia (day), or only the prepo- 
sition ef ; as, 



The first. 

The tenth. 

The eighteenth. 

The twenty-fifth of the month. 

It is the fourteenth of February. 



Elprimero, 

El dia diez. 

El dia diez y ocho. 

El dia veinticinco del mes, 

Estamos d catorce de Fehrero, 



Letters are dated in the following manner : 



Madrid, March 15, 1851. 
Madrid, loth of March, 1852. 



Madrid^ y Marzo 15 de 1851. 
Madrid^ 15 de Marzo de 1852 



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34. 





VOOABULAEY. 


rrlS, 


created. 


Tiobles cdbaUer}8, noblemen. 


Adan. 


Adam. 


deeapitado, beheaded. 


M. 


was. 


Antonio^ Anthony. 


Bicardo^ 


Richard. 


Vicente^ Vincent. 


Inglaterra^ 


England. 


Fedro^ Peter. 


emprendieron^ 


undertook. 


Benito^ Benedict. 


eruzada^ 


tlie crusade. 


Domingo, Dominic. 


Luis nonOy 


Louis tlie Ninth. 


Oil, Giles. 


nombrado^ 


called. 


Fepe, little Joseph 


el santo^ 


the holy. 


Lorenzo, Lawrence. 


Enrique^ 


Henry. 


Foque, Roch. 


lucha^ 


combat. 


Javier, ' Xavier. 



JEkamples. 

El primer hombre que Dios crio, fu6 Adan. Fara- 
mundo primero fu6 el primer rey de Francia. Felipe 
segundo, rey de Francia, y Eicardo, corazon de leon, 
rey de Inglaterra, emprendi^ron la tercera guerra de la 
cruzada en el aiio mil ciento oclienta y nueve. Luis 
nono fu6 nombrado el santo. Enrique segundo, rey de 
Francia, murio en una lucha contra uno de sus nobles 
caballeros. Enrique cuarto fue asesinado por F. Ra- 
vaillac, el catorce de Mayo de mil seiscientos y diez. 
Carlos primero, rey de Inglaterra, fu6 decapitado en 
L6ndres en el ano mil seiscientos cuarenta y nueve. 
Mi primo es muy aplicado ; es el primero de la clase ; 
Carlos es d segundo; Antonio es el tercero; Vicente 
es el cuarto; Pedro es el quinto; Benito es el sexto; 
Enrique es el s^ptimo ; Domingo es el octave ; Gil es el 
nono; Pepe es el decimo; Lorenzo es el undecimo; 
Roque es el duodecimo; Javier es el d6cimo tercio; 
Simon es el ultimo. M&rtes es el tercer dia de la se- 
inana. Dos es la quinta parte de diez. Cinco es la 
cnaila parte de veinte. Un dia es la septima parte de 
una semana. Una semana es la cuarta parte de un mes, 
y un mes es la duodecima parte de un afio. 



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35. 

Exercises. 

Charles the Twelfth, king of Sweden/ was a great 
general.^ Lewis the Sixteenth died the 21st of January, 
1793. Philip Augustus* was the forty-second king of 
France ; Francis* the First, the fifty-eighth ; Henry the 
Fourth, called the Great, the sixty-third; Louis the 
Sixteenth was the sixty-seventh king of France. Yon 
will find this fact* noticed® in the 20th volume, 8th book, 
12th chapter^, on the 85th page. He is the man with 
whom I became first acquainted. 

* Suecia. } capitan. • Felipe Augusto. * Francisco. » hecho. • indi- 
cado. » capitulo. 



First Person. 



N. To, 

Qt. demi, 

D. dmi, 

A. me. 



36. 

PRONOUNS. 

1. Personal Pronouns. 



Singular. 
Second Person, 



Third Person^ 



I. 

of me. 
to me. 
me. 



detij 
dti, 



thou, 
of thee, 
to thee, 
thee. 



Masc. 

H, he. 

de elf of him. 

d 61, to him. 

kf him. 



Fern. 
eUa, she. 
de ella, of her. 
a elUif to her. 
la, her. 



no8 or 

nosotrot, we. 
de nosotros, of us. 
d nosotrot, to us. 
not, us. 



Plubal. 
vos or 

vosotroSj yon. 
de vosotros, of you. 
d vosotros, to you. 
OS, you. 



eUos, they. 
de ellos, of them, 
d eUos, to them. 
les, them. 



dlas, they. 
de eUas, of them. 
d dUts, to them. 
hs, las, them. 



Tlie Reflected Pronoun " sV^ 



86. 



one's self, 
of one's self. 
to one's self, 
one's self. 



with me, rendered by conmigo^ not con wit. 
with thee, " contigOy " eon ti. 

with it, " comigo^ " con 8€, 



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Compound Disjunctive Pronouns 

are formed by adding mismo^ muma (self), or pliu-al, 
mismos^ mismas (selves), to the pronomis. 



SlNaULAB. 



Plxtral. 



yo mismOy a^ 


myself. 


nosotroB mismos, 


flw, ourselves. 


tu mumo^ a, 


thyself. 


isosotros mismos, 


aSj yourselves. 


il mismOy a, 


himself. 


ellos mismos, as, 


themselves. 


ei mismOy a, 


one's self. 


«i mismos, as, 


themselves. 




37. 






Vocabulary. 




i4 U diviertea^ 


thou enjoyest 


yo te ruego, 


I beg thee. 




thyself. 


me digas. 


to tell me. 


si, 


I know. 


regalo. 


present. 


d mi poco seme I care little for 


pa/ra ti. 


for thee. 


da. 


it. 


pa/ra ellos, 
les agradard, 


for them. 




we think of you. 


will please them. 


Vmda., 




que ae nos 


what they com- 


teve, 


sees thee. 


manda. 


mand us. 


no laves, 


sees her not. 


donde, 


where. 


todo elh, 


all this. 


perseguido, 

ladrones, 

alcamado. 


pursued. 


igual, 


equal. 


thieves. 


me han dicho, 


they have told 


overtaken. 




me. 


d una legua de 


one mile from 


dependia, 


depended. 


aqu%. 


hence. 


cual. 


which. 


tanto cuanto. 


as much as. 


eompraste, 


thou boughtest. 


merece. 


deserves. 


did, 


gave. 


d solas. 


alone. 



JEx^ain^les. 

Yo trabajo siempre y tu te diviertes todos los dias 
Yo se que este muchacno ha hablado mal de ml, pero a 
mi poco se me da. Tu decias que esta carta era para 
mi, pero yo te aseguro que es para el. (Vosotros) Yms. 
siempre estan (estais) hablando de mi y de ella y noso- 
tros nunca pensamos en Vms. (vosotros). Ella te ve 
todos los dias y tu no la ves nunca. El es mejor que 
ella. Ellos estaban hablando de ti y decian que de ti 
solo dependia este negocio. De mi se decir que todo 
ello me es igual. Me nan diclio que habias perdido el 
libro. I Cual has perdido ? el que comprasto ayer 6 e^ 



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que to dio tu padre? jEs verdad que Vni. se casa con 
el ? Yo te ruego me digas, quien es el que estaba aqui. 
Yo tengo un resale para ti j para ellos, que les agra- 
dara mucho. Nosotros hemos de hacer todo lo que se 
DOS manda. A ella no se le da nada de eso, pero a ti te 
importa inucliisimo. Yo les deeia pues, que habiamog 
perseguido & los ladrones y que los habiamos alcanzado 
a una legua de aqui. i o le amo y le estimo tanto 
cuanto el merece, 

38. 

I have seen thee this morning. Hast thou seen my 
father? He has told me that mou wouldst not be^ at 
home to-day. Pray, said he to me, leave us a little,' 
and leave me alone with him. She, replied he to us 
(to him, and to me), is nothing else but an actress* of 
the suburb.* How is it possible, I interrupted him,* 
that you are not unanimous?* I believe, madam, that 
you will say the same/ as I have told him long ago.® 
My brother came with me from the theatre. We have 
to thank ourselves for it. 

1 efttarias. « ap&rtato un poco. » actriz. * arrabal. • le xnterrampi 
• de acuerdo. » lo misma. « hace mucho. 

39. 

On the use of Personal Pronmins with the Infinitive of 

Verbs. 

The pronouns me^ se^ nos^ os^ fe, lo^ la, las, les, los, la, 
las, se, may be joined to the infinitive, imperative, or 
gerund of verbs. They are added at the end of tho 
verbal form, so as to form one word ; as, 

vino ayer d verme, he came to see me yesterday. 

d soeorrerte^ to assist thee. 

no gueria dedrteh, he would not tell it to thee. 

eacribiendole, while writing to him. 

in all other cases the pronouns are placed bcforo tli<» 
verb; as, 

te hdblo^ I speak to tlieei, 
le estima, he esteems him. 

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40. 

Examples. 

Uojeme Vm.^ que qniero ir k casa, pues tengo quo 
escribir una carta. Pasandome por la casa de mi amiffo, 
bizome setia^ para que entrase. Creo que el Sefior W. 
teta eu Hainburgo ; pues cscribale y convidele Vm.* que 
vcnga a visi tamos. Esctichenme Vms.,* que vov a can- 
tar.* Si Vm. viere^ a mis hermanos, digales V m J que 
los estov esperando.^ Si td vieres & mis hermanas por 
alia,' diles**^ que me esperen. EUos tienen un caballo ; 
quisierale tener para darsele k Vm.^^ Dile^ & tu amo^^ 
que le enviar6 el coche. Si recibo cartas para ellas, 
se las enviar6 sin abrirlas. EstAbamos para refiimos," 
cuando td entraste. Cuando supe" que td estabas en el 
aprieto/* me apresur6*^ & socorrerte.'® No queria^' escri- 
birtelo, para no enfadarte.^ Cuando los vimos, unimo- 
nos todos^^ y derrotamoslos^ a todos. El trae consigo^ 
todo lo que necesitamos para el viage. Yo no 86 como 
no tienes miedo de los ladrones, trayendo (Uevando)^ 
siempre tanto dinero contigo. Yo no traigo nada con- 
migo y asi no pierdo^ nada. Estas sefioras llevan siem- 
pre BUS parasoles^ consigo. ^Quieres venir al teatro 
conmigo * No puedo ; estoy convidado para ir al con- 
cierto con ella. Rindeteme,^ sino te mato® sin com- 
pasion. 

> let me. « made me a sign. • write to him, and invite him. < listen 
</0 me. » I will sin^. • if you should see. » tell them. « that I expect 
them. • there. " tell them. " to give it to you. >« tell him. "^ master. 
*« we were on the point of disputing. »» when I heard. " difficulty. 
" hasten. " assist. »» would not. * provoke. «* we united all. " put 
to flight. » he carries with him. »» as thou carriest with thee. «■ lose. 
■• parasol. ^ surrender. *« else I kill thee. 

41. 

Exercises. 

Let me alone.^ I will make him a present of a book. 
Do you know what you should do ? While writing to 
him,^ a man came to speak to me.* I should like to 
assist you,* but my position* does not permit* it. Tell 
your master that I should like to see and to speak with 



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liirrij because I have sometliing to tell himJ My dog is 
always with me wherever I may be. The robbers, not 
content with having robbed him, killed him. Have you 
a watch with you ? Will you come with me ? 

» d^jeme Vm. en paz. « escribi^ndole. » & hablarme. * quisiera socor- 
nr\e, • posicion. • pormite, ' porque tengo algo que decirle. 

42. 
2. Possessive Peonouns. 
1. Conjunctive Possessive Pronouns. 
SnTGULAE. Plubal. 



mi^ 


my. 


mis. 


tu, 


thy. 


tU8. 


m. 


his, her3. 


rus. 


nuestro^ a, 


our. 


nuestros, as. 


vuestrOj a, 


your. 


vuestroSy as. 



Obs. — ^They always agree in number with the nouo 
that follows them ; as, 

mi dbueh^ tu sohrino, nuestra hacienda, 

JEmniples. 

Mi tio ha perdido su sombrero y su reloj. Mi her- 
mana ha peraido su libro y su pluma. Jm padre ha 
vendido sus caballos. Tu tia tambien ha vendido su. 
casa. Sus casas son hermosisimas. Mi tio ha comprado 
un sombrero para su hiio. Esta carta sera sin duda 

[)ara mi hermana. Tu hermana ha escrito una carta 
arguisima k su madre. La casa de mi tio es mas her- 
mosa que la de^ tu padre, j Ha visto Vm. mi perro ? 
Vamos 4 paseamos^ en nuestro jardin, que nuestro 
padre ha comprado de tu tio. He dado 4 tus hermanas 
algunas flores, que coji^ en nuestro jardin. Mi amigo 
ha recibido una carta de su padre, que trae memorias 
para* tu madre y tus hermanas. Mis hermanos y tus 
liermanas han ido juntos* al teatro. iQu6 dices de 
uuestra ciudad, de nuestros paseos, de nuestras costum- 
bres,* de nuestra policia® y de nuestros arreglos?^ Este 
uiiio es el hijo de mi tio, que vive en su quinta & dop 
leguas de aqui. Este muchacho ha perdi'^o bus padres 

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y lia quedadu recoinendado a mi padre. He dado mi 
cortaplumas^ a tu hermano ; j 61 me ha dado su navaja* 

Sor d. El hijo de nuestra vecina es muy ben6fico ; el 
a d los pobres hasta sua vestidos, pero tambien es muy 
rico. Quisiera tener su hacienda ! ^® 

« let us take a walk. • plucked. » brings compliments. * together. 
* .-"u atoms. • police. * arrangements. • penKnifo. » razor, w property. 

43. 

Msercises. 

My mother has lost her book and her pocket-handker- 
chief.^ My brother has found* thy watch. We have 
sold our house and our horses. Have you seen my 
uncle's garden ? Tou have written a letter to our uncle 
and to our aunt. My brother-in-law has sold his gar- 
den to my brother. Thy cousin is the friend of my 
neighbor. The book of mj father is very useful. Her 
dress is very beautiful.* 1 know his brothers, and her 
sisters. She has left her bonnet in his garden. 

> panuolo. « hallado. • precioso. 

u. 

2. Relative Possessive Pronowns. 



SiNGULAB MaSO. 


SiNQULAE FkM. 


dmio^ 


mine. 


la mia^ 


mine. 


del miOj 


of mine. 


de la mia^ 


of mine. 


al mio^ 


to mine. 


d lamiaj 


to mine* 


el tuyo, 


thine. 


la tuya, 


thine. 


el suyOy 


his. 


la mya^ 


hers. 


el nueaPro^ 


ours. 


la nuestra^ 


ours. 


el vueetro^ 


yours. 


la 'ouestra^ 


yours. 



Ill the plural, these pronouns take an 8. 

Examples, 

Amiffo mio, creo que estoy viendo k tu padre all&. 
N"o es el mio i es el tuyo ? No, esto no ; mi padre esta 
en casa, pero el tuyo, el suyo y el de 61 han ido d la 
ciudad. Amiga mia jporqu6 no envia Vm. sua hijas al 

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teatro? pues las mias estan alii y creo que las suyas de 
ella tambien iran. Mi casa y la de Vms. creo que son 
las mas hermosas de la calle. He visto 4 mi padre con 
el suyo paseandose en el jardin de Vm. He vendido 
mi jardin ^tiene Vm. aun el suyo?^ Vm. dice haber 
visto a mis hijos; pues yo tambien lie visto d los de 
Vm.* Aqui estan todas las plumas, la mia, la tuya y la 
suya. Los tres buques^ se ban perdido, el mio, el tuyo 
y el suyo. Los bijos de Vm. y los suyos son mas obe- 
dientes* que los nuestros. La mia y la tuya son el ori- 
gen** de todas las contiendas.* Un prime mio se ba 
casado con una bija tuya. Nuestros aminos tienen mas 
cr^dito que los de Vms. j Ay I. madre mia, que desgra- 
cia es la nuestral En Dios solo es en quien el abna 
ballard descanso.^ 

He recibido la suya de 22 del corriente. Ruego & 
Vm. venga d esta suya. 

1 have you yet yours ? « yours. • ships. * obedient. » origin. • dis- 
pute, "* rest, 

45. 

. JEffercises. 

You bave still your parents, but mine and bis died at 
tbe same time.^ W bat do you tbink of my sons ? Are 
tbey not more industrious tban bis ? Li tbis street are 
our bouses, mine, tbine, bis, and tbeirs. Our dauffbters 
bave gone to tbe tbeatre; tbine and bis bave tsien a 
walk; and yours bave gone to tbe cburcb witb your 
sons. Our bouses are mucb larger tban yours. My 
aunt is older tban yours. Our ft-tber is younger tban 
his. 

» al mismo tiempo. 

46. 

Vm. Vms. 

The Spaniards generally, in speaking to a person, use 
tbe word vested (you), which is written V. orvm. {vtces- 
tra Merced)^ tbe plural of which is ustedes, written Vms» 
{vuestras Merceaes). Vide foot-note on page 14. 

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Se^x/r is used with the article ; Doriy Dofki^ Madama^ 
Monsenor^ Fraile^ Santo {San)^ without it. Don and 
Dona are only used before Christian names ; as, 



b'4*. not 



Bon PedrOyDon Juan; 
Don Cervantes^ Don Caldercn. 



Seflor^ 
Don, 
Seflordy 
Dofia-, 



YOOABULARY. 



Sir. 



Madam. 



SeUorita^ 
Seflores^ 
Sefloras^ 
Sefloritas, 



Miss. 

Gentlemen. 
Ladies. 
Young ladies. 



JEkarnples. 

El Senor Pedro es un hombre respetable. { Ha visto 
Vm. al Seilor Conde i i Han hablado Vms. con el Sefior 
Don Juan ? Esta sefiorita me agrada mucho por sus 
bellos modos. H^game el Sefior Don Juan Rios el fa- 
vor de sefialarme este escribano. Heraos escrito & los 
Sefibres Smith y Comp. San Pedro y San Pablo eran 

frandes ap6stoles. Santa Ana estd mencionada en la 
Iscritura. Dona Elvira es muy hermosa. Don Miguel 
y Don Alonso son nombrados^ en la historia. Don Juan 
era un gran aventurero. j Habeis visto d estas sefioritas ? 
Han tenido mucha bondad para nosotros. Digame 
Vm., I qui6n es este hombre ? Es mi sastre que me ha 
hecho todos mis vestidos. 

» celebrated. 



47. 

Moerdses. 

Have you seen Mr. Leon ? Have you spoken with 
Mr. Pedro ? Yes, I have also spoken with if rs. Pedro, 
who speaks Spanish beautifully. This lady has beauti- 
ful dresses. These young ladies are always well dressed. 
These ladies are frequenfly in the theatre. I saw these 
gentlemen yesterday in a concert. 



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48. 
8. Demonsteativb Pbonoitkb. 

SiNQULAB. 
XMenlfne. Feminine. Kenwr. 

Ist. este^ this one, esta, esto^ this. 

2d. eae, that one, esa. eso^ that. 

8d. aquel^ that one, aquella, aquello^ that 

Plueal. 

Mase Fem. 

1st. e^ioSy these, estas, 

2d. €908^ those, esas. 

8d. aquelUa^ those, aqueUai. 

JSstey a, is used of a person or tiling near the speaker 
JE!sej aj is nearer to him of whom one speaks. 
Aquel, aqtcella, is equally distant from both. 

49. 

Este hombre es mas fuerte que ese. Esta mesa es 
mas grande que esa. Esta casa es hermosa, pero esa es 
aun mas hermosa, y aquella mucho mas alt a. Mira^ es-. 
tos drboles ; j este y efee no te parecen mas frondosos que 
aquel ? Este *es mi jardin, ese es el de mi tio, y aquel 
es el de mi cufiado. Esta es la mas hermosa mujer que 
he visto, y aquella es la mas prudente. Este hombre- 
cillo es el padre de esos muchachitos, y aquella mujer- 
cilia la madre de estas muchachitas. Este mozo* es de 
Berlin, ese de Viena, aqiiel de Dresde, y aquel otro^ de 
Colonia. Eso de trabajar no le gusta. jQufi es esta 
vida en comparacion k la etemidad I Es menester* con- 
formarse" al uso del pais* donde se vive, y no al de una 
tierra remota. He aprendido el lenguage^ de aquella 
tierra en seis meses. gConoce Vm. aquel hombre? 
Pon^ el sobrescrito* k esas cartas v envlalas al correo*' 
por este muchacho. jAdonde llevas esos caballos? 
Aauella casa que estd cerca de aquellos drboles, es raia. 

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Esta casa se alquila.^* Yo no creo nada de eso. Lleva 
estas cartas al correo. j Has pagado el porte^^ de estas ? 

> observe. • youth. • that other. * it is necessary. » to accommodate, 
custom of the countryi » language. • put. • direction. " to the post. 
> is to be let. " postage. 

60. 

JSxercises. 

riiis house is larger than that which my uncle has 
bought. This lady is my mother, and that one is my 
aunt. Which book do you want, this or that ? This 
book is well bound, this one still better, but that is the 
best. I gave the stick* to that man, who brought me 
this one. This gentleman is a Frenchman, this an Eng- 
lishman, and that one a German. What does this 
man want? These houses have been bought by my 
^ father. My brother has bought those horses of those 
gentlemen. 

> baston. 

51. 

quien^ 

*lJnt.l\ *^'';''«'^'^''- lo»q,m,\ those Which. 



Mcamjples. 



those who. 



{ Qu6 se dice de la Hungria ? Se nos habla diversa- 
mente* de ella. i Ha leido Ym. todo el contenido^ de la 
carta ? Si, luego^ le dar6 k Vm. cuenta de 61. Dicen 
que hay oro en las Indias. Cuando uno juzga* de una 
cosa sin saberla, siempre se engaila® en ella. El que 
quiera ser buen soldado, ha de tener brio*. El que 
quiere hacerse sabio, debe estudiar. Lo que nos sabe 
bien,^ no es siempre lo que debemos comer. Este reloj 
es el que me di6 Vm. por mis cumpleafios.* Esta casa 
es de aquel k quien Vm. compro el caballo. j Qui6n se 
atreve a malaecir k aquel, cuyas virtudes est4n tan co- 
nocidas ? La casa que he vendido & ese hombre, no es 
tan hermosa como la que hemos visto. 

> diiferent. * contents. * soon. « judges. • to be mistaken. • corira||% 
which we like. * birthday. 

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52. 

Ecerdses. 

He who thinks badly of him, is bad himself. I have 
lost my book and that of my brother. My shoes are 
smaller than those of my brother. Those girls who 
were here were not pretty. This bird* was prettier than 
that which you have seen in the garden. That which I 
want to say is not what you think. Who is the man 
with whom you spoke in the streets ? Those ladies with 
whom I took a walk are strangers.* 

> plgaro. * forasteras. 

53. 

4. Kelativk Pbonouns. 

Que^ quien^ cual^ cuyo^ who, which, that. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. quien^ who, wliich, quienes. 

Gen. de quien, of whom, de quienes, 

Dat. d quieuy to whom, d quienes, 

Aco. d quien^ whom, d quienes. 



Kom. C cttal, ) who, which, cuales, 

Obj. <que^ f that, \que. 

0. (cuyo^ a, whose, which, (euyaSy as. 



Obs. Que^ cualy may refer to persons or things. 
QuieUj quienes^ only refers to persons, and is also an 
Interrogative pronoun. 

Mcam-ples. 

La mujer que el ama,^ es tal vez* la mas hermosa de 
la comarca. j Quien de Vms. ha sido el picaro* que ha 
comido este queso ? Los mercaderes,* con* quienes esta- 
mos en relacion, nos han escrito que los cafes habian 
tomado favor.* Yo har6^ todo lo que Vm. me mandare.* 
Al que ha estado alffun tiempo en EspaSa, le pesa' el 
salir de ella.**^ j Cual es su parecer^^ de Vm. en esta 
ocurrencia? iQue cosa mas noble que el socorrer al 
desvalido !** Este hombre es quien nos robo^' el afio pa- 
sado." Yo quiero mucho d la sefiorita, cuya hermosura^' 

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es tan atractiva^^ y cuyo respeto y obediencia para con 
BUS padres mnestra^^ la bnena crianza^^ que ha recibido 
de eilos. jDe quien^' son estas casas? Las mujeres cu- 
yos maridos estaban rinendo, se ban batido tambien. 
I A quien preguntar6 yo las sefias de la casa de mi tio, 
que, segun me ban dicho,® ba de vivir en este barrio ?® 
I De quien ba recibido Vm. este libro ? 

* he loves. • perhaps. • the rogue. * merchant. • with. « are wanted 
pn demand). ^ I shall do. > command. • is sorry, w to leave it. " opin- 
ion. " helpless. »» robbed. " last year. " whose beauty. " attractive. 
" shows. *« education. " of whom. «> as I have been told, " part of 
the town. 

54. 

Exercises. 

Have you ever seen a man whose figure* was as ridic- 
ulous^ as this man's ? The gentleman, whose name' you 
do not remember,^ has inspected this house. The lady 
who was here is the sister of my father. The man with 
whom I have spoken is our neighbor, who will shortly 
go to America. That which you can do to-day, do not 
delay* till to-morrow. The book which I have bought 
is well bound. Which of the two do you prefer ? The 
merchant, whose wife visited us, is gone to India. 

> traza. * ridicula. > nombre. ^ Vm. no se acuerda. • no lo difleraa. 

55. 

6. Interrogative Pronouns. 

Qrii, quien, cudl, cuyo, who, which, what? 

Theje words when used interrogatively are marked with the accent. 

Ejcamples. 

• { Que bora es ? { Qui6n estd suspirando^ alii ? { Quien 
es el hombre que tenga bastante animo* para atreverse' 
d entrar en esta casa? {Qu6 mujer es la que aca- 
ba de entrar ? \ A qu6 peligros* no se ha espuesto' 
Y\n 1 I Qu6 funestas noticias* trae esta carta ! j Qu6 
quieres hacer, amigo, cuando todo va contra tus de- 
Bcos?^ J En que piensas?* jCual ha sido el tunante 
que haya dicho tal cosa? jQui6n puede hab6rtelo 

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iicho? jCudl es tu opiuion en los asuntos pollticos ?*" 
{ Cudles son las principales ciudades de Eepafia? j Cudl 
es la mas rica de estas senoras ? { De quiSa es este som- 
brero, que estd feobre la mesa ? | De qui6n ha recibido 
Vm, esta noticia tan agradable ? A qui6n preguntar6 
de la vivienda'^ de aquel Sefior ? 8 Quien te ha dicho que 
era fan pobre ? i Qu6 tal vau*^ los asuntos ? ; Cudnta 
gente^ habra aqui reunida," y que tal vez habra la 
raitad** que no sepa^^ porque 1^^ i A qui6n escribes des- 
pues de tanto tiempo? jQu6 quiere Vm. hacer con 
este papel? i Qu6 ? j Qui6n estd llamando & la puerta ?^ 
Sin duda sera mi hermano que viene del teatro. 

» to sigh. • oonrage enou^rh. • to dare. * what dangers. » expose. 
• bad news. » against your wishes. • of what do you thinl. • could nave 
told it to you. >» political affairs. »» lodging. »« how are (go), »■ peo- 
ple. " collected. " half. >« will not know. " why. " knock at the door. 



56. 

6. Indefinite Pbonodns. 



Alguno^ a, 


somebody. 


mucho, a, 


algunos^ aa, 


some. 


muchos, as, 


alguien^ 


some one. 


ninguno, a, 


cualquier^ 


^ whichever. 


nadis, 


eualquiera^ 


■ whoever. 


ninguno. 


quienquiera, 


1 every one. 


ni uno ni otro, 


uno^ a, 


one. 


ni una ni otra, 


unosy Unas, 


some. 


fU uno, ni una. 


mismo, a, 


V same. 


otro, a. 


mismosy as. 


otros, as, 


elmumo, 


the same. 


deotro. 


coda, 


each. 


de otros. 


eada uno, 




d otro. 


coda una, 


. every one. 


d otros. 


uno y ot/ro. 




todo, a. 


una y otra. 


• both. 


todos, as, 


uno8 y otroSy 




tal, 


Unas y otras, 


, 


tales. 



V several. 

none. 

\' nobedy. 

i neither one- nor 
' the other, 
not one. 

^ others. 

> of others. 

> to others. 

I ^ all, every thing. ' 

> such. 



57. 

Nadie hay^ en el mundo que est6 tan desgraciado 
como el. jHavenido alguien durante* mi ausencia?' 
Me pareco que alguno de Vms. ha estado aqui, puea 



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tenia algunas peras, y ya no hay ninguna mas. Mi tio 
estd en Hamburgo ; creo que tiene algunos asuntos para 
arreglar.* j Ha venido alguna de las sefioras que estaban 
ayer en el concierto? No^ senor, ninguna ha venido. 
Cada uno se ama & si mismo. Cualquiera que hace esto, 
es un imprudente. No he encontrado ni la una ni el 
otro. El uno decia que si, y el otro que no. Cada cinco 
dias vendre & visitar & Vm. 

> there is. « during. " absence. * arrange. 

58. 

Exercises. 

If any one asks after me, tell him that I am not at 
home. If any one sees you, he will believe you to. be 
ill. No one would assist him. Both were Spanish 
ladies. None of us is so rich as he, but there are few 
who are so avaricious as he. Every one is innocent. 
Nobody has done it. All the houses in this street are 
low.^ Such beauties* one sees rarely. My father has 
promised to visit me every day, but he never comes. 
Somebodv told me you were gone to Madrid. , Neither 
one nor the other had done it. 

1 son bajas. ' tales hermosuras. 

59. 
On the bendeking of the English " One," " They.' 

Examples. 

I Ha oido Ym. la voz^ que corre V No, i (ju6 se dice ?' 
Me han dicho* que ha habido*^ una grandisima batalla, 
en donde los nuestros han vencido al enemigo. j Oudnto 
Be rieron,^ cuando nos vieron d todos volteando en el 
Buelo !^ Nos han dicho que cuatro navios® han naufra- 
gado.® Se habla^ mucho de la paz concluida entre los 
ducados^^ y la Dinamarca. No sabemos siempre lo que 
queremos. jQu6 se dice de nuevo? Se dice que las 
hostilidades de una parte y de otra empezaran de nuevo. 
Ma han dicho que el rey de ha muerto. Tanto 

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mejor, su Mjo le heredarA, pues se dice que estd mas ca- 
paz de reinar que el padre. XTno se lisonjea^^ al ver que 
es mas sabio que los demas. Se encuentra*^ d menuao^* 
a hombres, d quienes se puede amar d prim^a vista.^ 
Tus padres i qu6 dicen de mi ? Se dice que ajusticiardn^* 
n este acusado, aunque aseguran que sea inocente. 

« report. « goes. ■ what do they say? * one has told me. • has 
taken place. • Bow they langhed. » to roll on the j^und. • ships of war, 
» shipwreck. " they speak. »» duchy. »» one flatters one's sell. »» one 
meets. " often. >* first sight. " execute. 

60. 

Exercises, 

, They say that this will be a long^ winter.* It is said 
that your brother has been chosen' for the messenger.* 
Do you believe all that they say ? They speak mudi of 
the construction* of the cathedral of Cologne. One must 
be content^ with what one has. They write from Vienna, 
that the war between Eussia'^ and Turkey® will soon 
break out.® What other news is there at the Exchange?** 
One must know those well with whom one wishes to 
make friendship." 

* ser& largo. • inviemo. » electo. * diputado. • constrjccion. • m 
debe contentarse. » la Bnsia. • la Tarquia. • que se romperi la /suerra. 
k* lonja. " trabar araistad. 



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COLLECTION OF WORDS. 



1. El Universo. — ^The Universe* 



tl Oriador, 
la eriatura^ 
' el mundOy 
eljfirmamentOy 
una estrella^ 
elsoly 

Us ray 08 delsol^ 
la luna, 
elaro de luna^ 



God. 

the Creator. 

the creatare. 

the world. 

the skj. 

a star. 

the snn. 

the snnbearas. 

the moon. 

moonlight. 



el delo^ heaven. 

el arcO'iris^ the rainbow. 

los trueno8, the thunder. 

los reldmpagos^ the lightning. 



elfuego^ 
la llama^ 
la lluvia, 
la niebla^ 
la nieve, 
el hieloy 



the fire, 
the flame, 
the rain, 
the fog. 
the snow, 
the ice. 



2. XfOS JEataciones, — ^The Seasons. 



la pHmcmera^ 

el verano, 

el otofto^ 

el inviemo^ 

Enero^ 

Febrero, 

Ma/rzo^ 

Ahrily 

Mwyo^ 

Junio^ 

Julio, 

AgoBto, 

Setiemhrey 

Octubre, 

Noviemhre, 

Didembre, 

Domingo, 

Lanes, 

Mdrtes, 

MiSrcoles^ 

JuSves, 

Viemes, 

Sdbado, 

un afio. 



the Spring. 

the Sammer. 

the Antnmn. 

the "Winter. 

January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 

a year. 



una semana, 
un dia, 
una Kara, 
media Juyra^ 
hora y media^ 

un euarto de 

hora, 
un minuto, 
un segundo, 
la m>adrugada, 
la m>afUina, 
mediO'dia, 
la tcM-de, 
lapuestadelsol, 
la tcM-deeita, 
la noehe, 
media noche, 

ayer, 

m^aflana, 

elfiUy 



a month. 
a week, 
a day. 
an hour, 
half an hour, 
an hour and a 

half, 
quarter of an 

hour, 
a minute. 
a second, 
the daybreak, 
the morning, 
midday, noon, 
the afternoon, 
sunset, 
the evening, 
the night, 
midnight, 
to-day. 
yesterday, 
to-morrow, 
the end. 



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3. m Agua.—'ThQ Water. 



un manantialj 

unafuents, 

un estanqusy 

un tarrente, 

unriOy 

un arroyOy 

laribera^ 

un canalj 

elmar^ 

un hraeo de mar^ 

un golfOy 



a scarce, 
a fountain. 
a pond, 
a torrent. 
a river, 
a brook, 
the shore, 
aicanal. 
the sea. 
an arm of the 



sea. 
a gulf. 



un estrechOy 
un lago^ 
la calma^ 
Icctormenta^ 
unafragata^ 
unnoflAoy 
un na/vio mer- 

canUy 
un hareo^ 
la8 dncarasj 
un pirata^ 
los moHneroSy 



a strait. 

a lake. 

the calm. 

the storm. 

a frigate. 

a ship of the line 

a merchant-Y«3 

sel. 
a Tessel. 
the anchors 
a pirate, 
the sailors. 



4. Individuos y Parientes. — ^Individuals and Relations 



un honibre, 
una mujer^ 
un iDiejo^ 
una vieja^ 
un muchachOy 
unj&oen,} 
unmoeoy \ 
un nifiOy ) 
una nina^ ) 
unamuchacha) 



unavnoza^ 
los hijos^ 
el hijOy 
la hija^ 
§1 dbueloy 
la ahuela^ 

tl nietOy 
la nieta^ 

la infancia^ 
lajmentudy 
lavejee, 



i 



a man. 
a woman, 
an old man. 
an old woman, 
a boy. 

a young man. 
a child. 

a girl. 

the children. 

the son. 

the daughter. 

the grandfather. 

the grandmo- 
ther. 

the grandson. 

the grand- 
daughter. 

childhood. 

youth. 

old age. 



el padre, 
lamadrey 
elhennanoy 
la hennanoj 
el tio, 
la tia, 
el sobrino, 
la sohrina, 
elprimo, 
eleufladoj 

la cuflada, 

el suegro, 

la suegra, 

elyemo, 
lanuera, 

el esposo, 
la espo8a, 
los padres, 



the father. 

the mother. 

the brother 

the sister. 

the uncle. 

the aunt. 

the nephew. 

the niece. 

the cousin. 

the brother-in- 
law. 

the sister-in- 
law. 

the father-in- 
law. 

the mother-in- 
law. 

the son-in-law. 

the sister-in- 
law. 

the husband. 

the wife. 

the parents. 



6. M Cuerpo ^Humaiio. — ^The Human Body. 



el euerpo, 
la odbeza, 
elpescuezo, 
los cdbellos. 



the body, 
the head, 
tlie neck, 
the hair. 



el eielo de la 

hoca, 
la/rente, 
el cjOj 



the roof of the 

mouth, 
the forehead, 
the eye. ^ 



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iaa eejas^ 
lo8 pdrpados, 
las arejaSy 
la na^iZj 
las ventmas de 

lana/ria^ 
la cara^ 
la hoca^ 
los la>bios^ 
las quijadaSj 
las enciaSy 
la lengua^ 
elpaladar, 
la garganta^ 
los dientes^ 



the eyebrows, 
the eyelids, 
the ears, 
the nose, 
the nostrils. 

the face, 
the month, 
the lips, 
the jaws, 
the gnms. 
the tongne. 
the palate, 
the throat, 
the teeth. 



la la/rha^ 


the chin. 


las larbas^ 


the beard. 


el lomOy 


the back. - 


elpeeho^ 


the chest. 


el est^mago^ 


the stomach. 


el eorazon, 


the heart. 


los Iratos, 


the arms. 


unamano, 


a hand. 


la mano dere- 


the right hand. 


cha^ 




la mano izqui- 


the left hand. 


erda^ 




eldedo, 


the finger. 


etpU, 


the foot. 



6. Za Casa y Muehles, — The House and Furniture. 



una casa^ 
un palaeio, 
una casa de ) 

eampo^ ) 
las pa/redes^ 
elpatio^ 
la escalera, 
una puerta, 
la cerradura, 
la llave^ 
un cuarto^ 
un aposento 

mueblado^ 
una sala^ 
un salony 
la Mblioteea^ 
el estradoy 



a house, 
a palace. 

Sa country seat. 
a country house, 
the walls, 
the court, 
the staircase. 
a door, 
the lock, 
the key. 
a room, 
a furnished 

room, 
a parlor, 
a saloon, 
the fibrary. 
the drawing- 



un cuarto de 
dormir^ dor- 
mitoriOf re- 
camara, 

una ventana, 

la eocina, 

el comedor^ 

un euadro^ 

un espejo, 

una silla^ 

una silla pol- 
i/rona, 

una mesa^ 

eortinas, 

una eama^ 

un candil, 

un candelero^ 

una vela^ 



a bedroom. 



a window. 

the kitchen. 

the dining-room 

a picture.. 

a looliing-glass. 

a chair. 

an arm-chair. 

a table. 

curtains. 

a bed. 

a kitchen-lamp. 

a candlestick. ' 

a candid. 



1. La Ciudad.— The City. 



una eiudad. 
una eapitai, 
unpuerto de 

ma/r^ 
las cascts^ 
una ealle^ 
laplaza^ 
la 'bolsa^ 
el mereadoy 
las tiendas^ 



a city, 
a capital. 
a port. 

the houses, 
a street, 
the square^ 
the exchange, 
the market, 
the stores. 



una Mniversi- 

dad^ 
elcorreo^ 
laspuertaSy 
la easft del ay- 

untamientOy 
una iglesia^ 
u/n conventOy 
un monasterio^ 
un hospital^ 



a university. 

the post-offico. 
the gates, 
the city-hall. 

a church, 
a conyent. 
a monastery. 
a hospital. 



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hf arraibalei^ 
las puentea^ 
una posada^ ) 
una venta^ ) 



the suburbs, 
the bridges. 

an inn. 



una fuenUj 

el paseOy 

lo8 haMtantea^ 



a fountain, 
the promenade, 
the inhabitants. 



8. M Campo. — Tlie Country. 



una aldeay 
una Jiacienday 
una mantana, 
un valle^ 
una eolina, 
un prado^ 
una selva^ 
un desierto^ 
un drbol^ 
un eampo^ 
yerba^ 
trigo, 
la vifla^ 
unjardin. 



a village. 
a farm, 
a mountain. 
a valley. 
a hill, 
a meadow, 
a forest. 
a desert 
a tree, 
afield, 
grass. 

wheat, grain, 
the vineyard, 
a garden. 



unaplanta^ 
unajlor^ 
un ramillete^ 
una rosa^ 
un tulipan^ 
la violeta^ 
fruta^ 
unapera^ 
una mamana^ 
eerezas^ 
higaSy 
limoneSy 
nueces. 



a plant. 
a flower, 
a bouquet. 
a rose. 
a tulip, 
the violet, 
fruit, 
a pear, 
an apple, 
cherries, 
figs, 
lemons, 
nuts. 



9. Adjetivos. — ^Adjectives. 

tueno^ luena^ good. helh^ a, beautifuL 

mah^ a, bad. lindo^ a, pretty. 

igiMrante^ ignorant. feo^ a, ugly. 

grande^ great. rico^ a, rich. 

peqtteflOy a, little. pobre^^ poor. 

espesOy ay thick. enfermo^ a, ill. 

alto^ a, high. dichoBOy a, . happy. 

largOy a^ long. desdichado^ a, unhappy. 

angostOy a, narrow. verdadero, a, true. 

derecho^ a, right. faho^ a, false. 

nuevOy a, new. inocente^ innocent. 

antiguo^ a, old. eortSs^ polite. 

j^eny young. hlanco^ a, white. 

gordo, a, fat negro, o, black, 

^aco, a, meagre, thin. encamadOj red. 

durOy a, hard. azul, blue. 

fdeil, easy. verde, green. 

dificily difficult. contento, a, content. 

dulce^ sweet. virttiosOy a, virtuous. 

amarrgOy a, bitter. jprud&ntey prudent 

ealienUy warm. ju^atOy a, just. 

friOy a, cold. nncero, a, sincere. 

seco, a, dry. amarillo, a, yellow. 

h4ined0j a, damp. fnoreno, a, brown. 



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10. Verbos. — ^Verbs. 

pronundary to pronounce. eenar, to sup. 

nablar^ to speak. cormdar d uno, to invite some 

dedr, to say. one. 

mandary to command. servir^ to serve, 

asegurar^ to assnre. pensar^ to think. 

negcbr, to deny. mr, to langh. 

preguntoTy to ask. lloroTy to cry. 

respander^ to reply. oZ^, to smell. 

<;<>m^, to eat. estar re^riado, to have a cold. 

heber^ to drink. ver^ to see. 

almorear to breakfast. «a5^ ^ e^no^r, to kno^. 

corner^ to dine 



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EASY DIALOGUES. 



1. MUing and Drinking, — Bebiendo y Comiendo. 



A.re you hungry ? 

[ have a good appetite 

[ am very hungry. 

Eat something. 

What will you eat ? 

What do you wish to eat f 

You do not eat. 

I beg your pardon ; I eat very 
heartily. 

I have eaten very heartily. 

I have dined with a good ap- 
petite. 

Eat another piece. 

I can eat no more. 

Are you thirsty ? 

Are you not thirsty ? 

I am very thirsty. 

I am dying of thirst 

Let us drink. 

Give me something to drink. 

Will you drink a glass of wine ? 

Take a glass of beer. 
Drink another glass of wine. 
Sir, I drink your health. 
I have the honor to drink your 
health. 



I Tiene V. hambre ? 

Tengo buen apetito. 

Tengo mucha hambre. 

Coma V. algo. 

j Qu6 quiere V. comer ? 

I Qu6 desea Y. comer f 

V. no come. 

Perdone V., yo como muy bien. 

Yo he comido muy bien. 

Yo he comido con buen ap^ 

tito. 
Como V. un ppco mas. 
No puedo comer mas. 
j Tiene V.sed? 
I No tiene V. sed ? 
Tengo mucha sed. 
Me muero de sed. 
Bebamos. 
Deme V. de beber. 
I Quiere Y. tomar un vaso de 

vino? 
Tome V. un vaso de cerveza. 
Beba V. otro vaso de vino. 
Senor, bebo k la salud de Y. 
Tengo el honor de beber k Ip 

salud de Y. 



2. Going aivd Coming. — Ida y VueUa. 



Where are you going I 
I am going home. 
I was going to your house. 
Where do you come from ? 



I Adonde va Y. I 
Yoy k casa. 
Yo iba k casa de Y. 
I De donde viene Y. t 



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I come from my brother's. 

I am coming from cliurch. 

I have just left the school. 

Will you go with me ? 

Whither, do you wish to go ? 

We will go for a walk. 

We will take a walk. 

With all my heart, most will- 
ingly. 

What way shall we take ? 

Any way you like. • 

Let us go into the park. 

Let us take your brother on our 
way. 

As you please. 

Is Mr. B. at home ? 

He is gone out. 

He is not at home. 

Can you tell us where he is 
gone ? 

I cannot tell you precisely. 

I think he is gone to see his 

sister. 
Do you know when he will 

come back ? 
No, he said nothing of it when 

he went out. 
Then we must go without him. 



Yo vengo de casa de mi her- 

mano. 
Vengo de la iglesia. 
Salgo de la escuela. 
I Quiere V. ir conmigo ? 
I Donde quiere V, ir ? 
Iremos a dar un paseo. 
Daremos una vuelta, 
Bien. Con muchisimo gusto. 

I De qu6 lado iremos ? 
Iremos del lado que V. guste. 
Yamos al parque. 
Tomemos de paso al hermano 

deV. 
Como V. guste. 
I El senor B. esta en casa ? 
Ha salido. 
No esta en casa. 
gPuede V. decirnos a dondo 

ha ido ? 
No puedo decirselo a V. exac^ 

tamente. 
Creo que ha ido 4 ver 4 su 

hermana. 
I Sabe V. cuando volyerd ? 

No ; no ha dicho nada al mar- 

charse. 
En ese supuesto, nos iremos 

solos. 



3. Questions and Answers, 

Come nearer; I have some- 
thing to tell you. 
I have a word to say to you. 

Listen to me. 
I want to speak to you. 
What is it you want ? 
I am speaking to you. 
I am not speaking to you. 
What do you say ? 



, — Preguntas y JRespuestas. 

Acerquese V., tengo que de 

cirle una cosa. 
Tengo que decir 4 V. una pain 

bra. 
Escdcheme Y. 
Quiero hablar con V. 
j En que puedo servir 4 V. ? 
Es 4 Y. 4 quien hablo. 
No es 4 Y. 4 quien hablo. 
iQuedice Y.? 



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What did you say ? 

[ say nothing. • 

Do you hear ? 

Do you hear what I say ? 

Do you understand me ? 

Will you be so kind as to re- 
peat . . . f 

I understand you well. 

Why do you not answer me ? 

Do you speak Spanish ? 

Very little, sir. 

I understand it a little, but I do 
not speak it 

Do not speak so loud. 

Do not make so much noise. 

Hold your tongue. 

Did you not tell me, that . • . ? 

Who told you that ? 

They have told me so. 

Somebody has told it to me. 

I have heard it. 

What do you wish to say ? 

What is that good for ? 

How do you call that ? 

Do you know Mr. G. ? 

I know him by sight. 

I know him by name. 



|Qu6hadicho v.? 

Yo no digo nada. 

I Entiende V. ? 

I Entiende Y. lo que le digo ? 

I Me comprende V. ? 

I Quiere Y. tener la bondad do 

repetir . • . ? 
Entiendo k Y. muy bien. 
I Porqu6 no me responde Y. t 
I No habla Y. espanol ? 
Muy poco, senor. 
Lo entiendo un poco, pero no 

lo hablo. 
No hable Y. tan alto. 
No haga Y. tanto ruido. 
Callese Y. 

I No me ha dicho Y., que . . .t 
I Qui6n ha dicho 4 Y. eso ? 
Me lo han dicho. 
Alguien me lo ha dicho. 
Lo he oido decir. 
|Qu6 quiere Y. decir? 
I Para qu6 es eso bueno ? 
j Como llama Y. k esto ? 
I Conoce Y. al seiior G. ? . 
Le conozco de vista. 
Le conozco de nombre. 



4. The Age.-^Za Edad, 



How old are you ? 

How old is your brother ? 

I am twelve years old. 

I am ten years and six months 

old. 
Next month I shall be sixteen 

years old. 
I was eighteen years old last 

week. 
ITou do not look so old. 
You look older. 
[ thought you were older. 
I did not think you were so old. 



\ Qu6 edad tiene Y. I 

|Qu6 edad tiene el hermano 

deY.? 
Tengo doce afios. 
Tengo diez aiios y medio. 

Tendr6 diez y seis anos el me« ^ 

proximo. 
He cumplido diez y ocho anof 

la semana pasada. 
No representa Y. tanta edad. 
Representa Y. mas edad. 
Le creia 4 Y. mas viejo. 
Yo no le creia 4 Y. tan viejo. 



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How old may yoiir unclq be ? 

He may be sixty years old. 

He is about sixty years old. 

He is more than fifty years old. 

He is a man of fifty and up- 
wards. 

He may be sixty or thefe- 
abouts. 

He is above eighty. 

That is a great age. 

Is be so old ? 

He begins to grow old. 



I Que edad puede tener su tio 

deV.? 
Puede tener sesenta anos. 
Tiene cerca de sesenta afios. 
Tiene mas de cincuenta anos. 
Es un hombre de unos cin* 

cuenta anos. 
Puede tener sesenta anos. 

Tiene mas de ochenta afios. 
Es una edad avanzada. 
I Es tan viejo I 
Principia k hacerse viejo. 



5. HJie Time. — JOas Horas. 



What o'clock is it? ^ 

Pray tell me, what time is it ? 

It is one o'clock. 

It is past one. 

It has stmck one. 

It is a quarter-past one. 

It is half-past one. 

It wants ten minutes to two. 

It is not yet two o'clock. 
It is only twelve o'clock. 
It is almost three o'clock. 
It is on the stroke of three. 
It is going to strike three. 
It is ten minutes past three. 
Tlie clock is going to strike. 
There is the clock striking. 
It is not late. 
It is later than I thought. 
I did not think it was. so late. 



|Qu6 hora es? 

I Le ruego 4 V. me diga qu6 

hora es ? 
Es la una. 
Es la una pasada. 
Es la una dada. 
Es la una y un cuarto. 
Es la una y media. 
Son las dos m^nos diez mi' 

nutos. 
No son aun las dos. 
No son mas que las doce. 
Son cerca de las tres. 
Van 4 dar las tres. 
Van 4 dar las tres. 
Son las tres y diez minutos. 
Va 4 dar la hora. 
Vea V. que esta dandola hora 
No es tarde. 

Es mas tarde de lo que pensaba 
No creia que fuese tan tarde. 



6. The Weatlier.—M Tiempo. 

Whkt kind of weather is it ? 

It is bad weather. 

It is very cloudy. 

It is dreadful weather. 



I Que tiempo hace ? 
Hace mal tiempo. 
Hace un tiempo nebuloso, 
Hace un tiempo espantoso. 



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[t is fine weather. 

We are going to have a fine 

day. 
It is dewy. • 

It is foggx- 
It is rainy weather. 
It threatens to rain. 
The sky becomes very cloudy. 
The sky is getting very dark. 
The sun is coming out. 
The weather is clearing up 

again. 
It is very hot. 
It is sultry. 
It is very mild. 
It is cold. 

It is excessively cold. 
It is raw weather. 
It rains. 

It has been raining. 
It is going to rain. 
I feel some drops of rain. 
It hails. 

It snows ; it is snowing. 
It has been snowing. 
It has snDwed in large flakes. 

It freezes. 
It has frozen. 
It begins to yield. 

It thaws. 

It is windy. 

It is very windy. 

There is no air stirring. 

It lightens. 

It has lightened all night. 

It thunders. 

The thunder roars. 

The thunderbolt has fallen. 

It is stormy weather. 

We shall have a thunderstorm. 

The sky begins to clear up. 



Hace buen tiempo. 

Yamos k tener un hermosa dia 

Hay rocio. 
Hay neblina. 
Hace un tiempo Uuvioso. 
El tiempo indica agua. 
El cielo se pone nebuloso. 
El cielo se oscurece. 
El sol principia 4 salir. 
El tiempo se compone. 

Hace mucho calor. 

Hace un calor sofocante. 

Est4 muy templado. 

Hace frio. 

Hace un frio excesivo. 

Hace un tiempo frio y hiimedo. 

Llueve; 

Ha llovido. 

V4 4 Hover. 

Yo siento algunasgotasde agua. 

Graniza. 

Nieva. 

Ha nevado. 

Han caido muy gruesos copos 

de nieve. 
Hiela. 
Ha helado. 
El tiempo principia 4 mejo* 

rarse. 
Deshiela. 
Hace viento. 
Hace mucho viento. 
No hace aire. 
Kelampagu^a. 
Ha relampagueado toda la 

noche.' 
Truena. 

Suena la tormenta. 
El rayo ha caido. 
El tiempo esta borrascoso. 
Tendr^mos una borrasca. 
Principia el cielo k aclararse. 



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The weather is very unsettled. 

It is very muddy. 

It is very dusty. 

It is very slippery. 

It is bad walking. 

It is daylight. 

It is dark. 

It is uight. 

It is moonlight. 

Do you think it will be fine 

weather ? 
I do not think that it will rain. 
I am afraid it will rain. 
I fear so. 



El tiempo estd muy variable. 

Hay mucho lodo. 

Hay mucho polvo. 

El piso est4 resbaladizo. 

Hay muy mal piso. 

Es de dia. 

Est4 oscuro. 

Es de noche. 

La luna brilla. 

I Cree V. que hara buen ticm« 

po? 
Yo no creo que Uueva. 
Tengo miedo que Uueva. 
Lo temo. 



7. The Salutation. — M Saludo. 



Good morning, sir. 

I wish you good morning. 

How do you dot 

How is your health ? 

Do you continue in good 

health I 
Pretty good; and how is yours? 
Are you well ? 

Very well ; and you ? 
I am perfectly well. 
And how is it with you ? 
As usual. 

Pretty well, thank God I 
I am very happy to see you 
well. 



Buenos dias, senor. 

Doy 4 V. los buenos dias. 

I Como esta Y. ? 

I Como est4 V. de salud ? 

I Continda V. en buena salud \ 

Bastante buena ; j y la de V. ? 
jEstd V. bueno; lo pasa V. 

bien? 
Muy bien ; j y V. ? 
Estoy muy bien. 
I Y y. como esta ? 
Como de costumbre. 
Bastante bien, \ gracias a Dios ! 
Celebro mucho de ver k V. 

bueno. 



8. The Visit, — Za Vtsita, 



There is a knock. 

Somebody knocks. 

Go and see who it is. 

Go and open the door. 

It is Mrs. B. 

I wish you a good morning. 

I am happy to see you. 



Llaman. 

Alguno llama. 

Vaya Y. 4 ver quien es. 

Yaya V. 4 abrir la puerta. 

Es la sefiora B. 

Buenos dias tenga Y. 

Me alegro mucho de ver 4 Y* 



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I liave not seen you this age. 

It is a novelty to see you. 
Pray, sit down. 
Sit down, if you please. 
Give a chair to the lady. 
Will you stay and take some 

dinner with us ? 
I cannot stay^ 
I only came in to see how you 

are. 
I must go. 

Why are you in such a huiTy ? 
You are in a great hurry. 
I have a great many things to 

do. 
Surely you can stay a little 

longer. 
1 will stay longer another time. 

I thank you for your visit. 
I hope to see you soon again. 



Hace un siglo, que no he visto 

4 V. 
Es una novedad el ver d V. 
Tenga Y. la bondad de sentarso, 
Sientase V. si gusta. 
De V. una silla 4 la senora. 
iQuiere V. quedarse 4 comer 

con nosotros ? 
No puedo quedarme. 
No he entrado mas que para 

saber como est4 V. 
Tengo que marcharme. 
I Porque tiene Y. tanta prisa ? 
Y. tiene mucha prisa, 
Tengo mucho que hacer. 

Bien puede Y. quedarse un 

momento mas. 
Otra vez me quedar6 mas 

tiempo, 
Agradezco 4 Y. su visita. 
Espero que le volvere 4 ver 4 

Y. pronto. 



9. JBreaJcfasL — SI Almuerzo, 

Have you breakfasted ? 

Not yet. 

You are come just in time. 

You will breakfast with us I 

Breakfast is ready. 

Do you drink tea or coffee ? 

Would you prefer chocolate ? 



I prefer coffee. 

What can I offer you ? 

Here are rolls and toast. 

\Vhat do you like best ? 

I shall take a roll. 

How do you like the coffee ? 

Is the coffee strong enough ? 

It is excellent, 

[s there enough sugar in it ? 



I Ha almorzado Y. ? 

Todavia no. 

Y. Uega 4 tiempo. 

I Almorzar4 Y. con nosotros ? 

Est4 listo el almuerzo. 

iTomaY. te6cafe? 

I Querria Y. mejor tomar cho- 
colate ? 

Yo prefiero el cafe. 

I Que le ofrecere 4 Y. ? 

Ahi tiene Y. panecillos y toB 
tadas. 

I Cual le gusta 4 Y. mas ? 

Tomar6 un panecillo. 

I Como encuentra Y. el cafe ? 

I E8t4 bastante fuerte el cafa f 

Est4 excelente. 

I Tiene bastante azdcar ? 



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If there is not, do not make 

any ceremony. 
Do as if you were at home. 



Si no tiene bastante, no baga 

V. oumplidos. 
Haga V. lo mismo que si cstu- 

viera en su casa. 



10. Before Dinner, — Antes de la Comida. 



At what time do we dine to- 
day? 

We shall dine at four o'clock. 

We shall not dine before five 
o'clock. 

Shall we have anybody to din- 
ner to-day ? 

Do you expect company ? 

I expect Mr. B. 

Mr. D. has promised to come 
if the weather permits. 

Have you given orders for din- 
ner? 

What have you ordered for 
dinner? 

Have you sent for fish ? 

I could not get any fish. 

I fear we shall have a veiy in- 
different dinner. 
We must do as we can. 



I A qu6 bora comemos hoy 7 

Comer^mos a las cuatro. 

No comeremos dntcs de las 

cinco. 
I Tendremos alguno a la comi- 
da hoy ? 
I Espera V, gcnte ? 
Espero al senor B. 
El senor D. me ha prometido 

venir, si hace buen tiempo. 
I Ha dado Y. sus disposiciones 

para la comida ? 
^Que ha mandado Y. hacer 

para comer ? 
I Ha enviado Y. k comprar pes- 

cado? 
No he podido conseguir pesca- 

do. 
Me temo tengamos una mala 

comida. 
Haremos lo que se pueda. 



11. The Dinner. — La Comida. 



What shall I help you to ? 
Will you take a little soup ? 
No, I thank you. I will trouble 

you for a little beef. 
It looks so very nice. 
Which piece do you like best ? 
I hope this piece is to your 

liking. 
Gentlemen, you have dishes 

near you. 
Help yourselves. 



I Que servir6 4 Y. ? 

I Quiere Y. un poco de sopa? 

Mil gracias. Pedire 4 Y. un 

poco de carne de vaca. 
Tiene tan buena cara. 
I Que parte le gusta 4 Y. mas 
Espero que este pedazo esdcl 

gusto de Y. 
Sen ores, YY. tienen plato« 

delante de si. 
Sirvanse YY. 



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Take without cerfemony what 
you like best. 

Would you like a little of this 
roast-meat ? 

Will you have some fat ? 

Give me some of this lean, if 
you please. 

llow do you like the roast- 
meat? 

It is excellent, delicious. 

What will you take with your 
meat? 

May I help you to some vege- 
tables? 

Will you take peas or cauli- 
flower ? 

It is quite indifferent to me. 

I shall send you a piece of this 
fowl. 

No, thank you, I can eat no 
more. 

You are a poor eater. 

You eat nothing. 

I beg your pardon, I do honor 
to your dinner. 

You may take away. 



Toraen VV. sin cumplimicnto 
lo que les agrade mas. 

jQuiere V. un poco de esto 
asado ? 

I Le gusta 4 V. el gordo ? 

Deme V. magro, si V. gusta. 

I Como encuentra V. el asado ? 

Esta excelente, delicioso. 

I Que tomara V. con la came ? 

I Servire 4 V. legumbres ? 

iQuiere V. chicharos, 6 coli- 

flor? 
Me es indiferente. 
Voy 4 enyiar 4 V. un pedazo 

de esta ave. 
Doy 4 V. las gracias, yo no 

puedo comer mas. 
V. es un pobre comedor. 
V. no come nada. 
Perdone V., hago honor 4 su 

comida de V. 
V. puede quitar la mesa. 



12. Tea— El Te. 



Have you carried in the tea- 
things ? 

Every thing is on the table. 

Does the water boil ? 

Tea is ready. 

They are' waiting for you. 

Here I am. 

We have not cups enough. 

We want two more cups. 

Bring another teaspoon and a 
saucer. 

You have not brought in the 
sugar-tongs. 

Do you take cream ? 

The tea is very strong. 



I Ha traido V. todo -lo necesa- 

rio para el t6 ? 
Todo est4 sobre la mesa. 
I Hierve el agua ? 
El te est4 listo. 
Se espera 4 V. 
Aqui estoy. 

No tenemos bastantes tazas. 
Queremos dos tazas mas. 
Traiga V. una cuchara de to y 

un platillo.' 
V. no ha traido las tenaza^ 

para el azdcar. 
I Toma V. nata ? 
El t6 est4 muy fuerte. 



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I will tliank you for a little 

more milk. 
Here are cakes and muiBns. 

Do you prefer some bread and 

butter? 
I will take a slice of bread and 

butter. 
I'ass the plate this way. 
Ring the bell, if you please. 

Will you kindly ring the bell ? 

We want some more water. 
Bring it as quickly as possible. 

Make haste. 

Take the plate with you. 

Is your tea sweet enough ? 

Have I put sugar enongh in 

your tea ? 
It is excellent 

I do not like it quite so sweet. 
Your tea is very good. 
Where do you buy it ? 
I buy it at ... . 
Have you already done ? 
You will take another cup ? 
I shall pour you out half a cup. 

Yea will not refuse me. 



Pedire 4 V. un poco mas de 

leche. 
Aqui tiene V. bizcochos y pa- 

necillos. 
jPrefiere V. pan con manto- 

quilla ? 
Tomare una rebanada de pan 

con mantequilla. 
Envieme V. su plato. 
Tire V. de la campanilla, fei 

gusta. 

1 Quiere V. tener la bondad de 

tocar la campanilla ? 
Queremos mas agua. 
Traigalo V. lo mas pronto po- 

sible. 
Desp4chese V. 
Llevese V. el plato. 

2 Tiene bastante azd'car el t6 

deV.? 
I He puesto bastante aziicar en 

eltedeV.? 
Esta excelente. 
No me gusta tan dulce. 
Su t6 de V. est4 muy bueno. 
I Donde lo compra V. ? 
Lo compro en casa de . . . • 
I Ha concluido V. ya ? 
I Tomar4 V. otra taza ? 
Voy 4 servir d V. una mcdm 

taza. 
y. no me rehusard. 



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NAMES 

OF SOME SPANISH-AMERICAN FRUIl^, VEGETABLES, ETC., 
NOT USUALLY FOUND IN THE DICTIONABIES. 



A-BBRBviAnONS.— C A., for Central America; G; R., Oosta Rica; Mex., Meidco; K. O., New 
Grenada; Nic, Nicarac^na; P. B., Porto Rico; S. A., South America; Yens., Teuesnda* 
W. I., Weat Indiea. 

Abridor, (Peru) Peruvian apricot. 

Acelga, , Spinnage-top beet (root not used), Beta cida, 

Aguacate, Alligator pear, Persea gratis, 

/'otta, (Peru) do. 

(7«m, (N. G.) do. 

Aji, (S. A.) Vegetable peppers. 

CAifo, (Mex.) do. 

Ajonjoli, Sesame seed, bene seed, Ses, orten. 

Albahaca, Sweet basil. 

Algarroba, (Spain) Carob-bean. 

Algarroba, (S. A.) South American carob-bean, large pods witb 

sweet pulp, Inga, ProtopU, 

Pacay^ (Peru) do, do. 

Huaba^ gudba^ (Ecuador) .... do. do. 

Gwiva,{KiQ.) do. do. 

Almendron, (N. G.) Palm-almond, Attal, amyg. 

Alraendra de la India, (Cuba).. .India almond, Tir. catap, 

Almidon, (S. A.) Tapioc^ starch, Portuguese farina. 

Anana, Ananas,. See Pina. 

Anona, (Cuba) Sweet-sop, custard apple, Anona s^uamota, 

£inon, (Venz.) do. do. 

Caraz(m,(P.B,.) do. do. 

Anon, (Venz.) See Mnmon, Anona glabra, . 

Anon de tierra fria, (C. R.) ..,,See Chirimoya. 

Anoncillo de Cuba, (Cuba) ..,,See Mamoncillo, Anona huUata. 

Anondllo, (Central Cuba) See Mamoncillo, Jlielicoeea hijuga, 

Apio, (Venz.) Arracacha-root, ArraGOcka eeeuUtUa, 

ArraeaeJuif (S, A,) do. 

Arepa, (Cuba and S. A.) Maize griddle-cake. 

TorUUay (0. A. and Mex.) . . . do. 

Anllama, auyama, (Cuba) Kind of squash. 

Baga, (Cuba) Cork-wood custard apple, Monkey-apple, 

Ationa pcduetris, 

Ottanahana eimarona J (Venz.). do. do, 

Badea, (Bogot4) Passiflora quadr. See Qranadilla. 

Batato, Sweet potato. See Boniato. 



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Bejuco, liana, BaBh-rope, dimbing vines. 

Betubel, (Mex.) Red beet, beet-roou 

Remolaeha^ (Spain) do. do. 

Bija, (Caba) Annato, Bixa. 

Aehoi€,{Q. A.) do. 

Bijao, (S. A.) Wild-plantain, Bdiconia. 

Boinb6, qaimbomb6, Okra, Btbia. stetden. See Gombonibo. 

BolondroUf molmdron, do. 

Tloniato, moniato, (Cuba) Sweet-potato, Batatas edulis, 

OamoU^ {}A.QX,) do. 

Batata^ do. 

Cabeza de negro, Head of vegetable ivory-nuts, Phytel. moA 

Cabaya, Coarse aloe fibre for cordage ; Si»ul hemp. 

Cacabuate, (Mex.) Pea-nat, Arachis. 

Mam,{S.A,) do. 

Cacao, Cocoa or chocolate bean, Th^, 

Caimito, Star-apple, Ohrya, 

Cajera, (Venz.) i . . . ; Bitter orange. 

Oo^da^ {Qxkhti) do. 

7iy«'to, (P. R.) do. 

Calabaza, Squashes and pumpkins. 

Cambur, (Venz.) Fig banana, Mtua, 

Camote, (Mex.) Sweet-potato. Sm Boniato. 

Canistel, canist^, A small kind of sapote. 

Capul^, Peruvian winter-cherry, PhysaiU, 

Capulin, (Mex.) Capuli-plum, Prumts. 

Caruto, (Venz.) Genipap. See Jagua. 

Castana, (C. A.) Pandanus fruit. 

Castana de Malabar, (Cuba).... Bread-fruit, with seeds, Art. incis, 

C&ucho, (S. A.) India-rubber (hence the French word, OaouU 

ehoue). See Ule. 

Cazave, Cassada- bread (from tapioca-root), Jatrophm 

manihot, 
CeboUin, ceboUeta, (Cuba) Bush-nut or earth-almond, C^. eacuL 

Ohu/a, (Spain) do. do. 

Cereza, ( W. I.) Barbadoes-cherry, Malpighia. 

Ch'abacano, (Mex.) Apricot. 

Chayote, Christophine, chocho, one-seed cucumber, 

Seeh, edvl. 

Chicha, Any sweet fermented drink. 

Chioo sapote, (Mex.) See Nispero. 

Chirimoya, (S. A.) .Chirimoya, Anona ckirimolia. 

Anon de tierrafria,^ (C. B.) . . do. do. 

Cliile, (Mex.) Vegetable peppers. See Aji. 

Chufa, (Spain) Kush-nut, earth-almond, Oyferae eee. 

CIdra Citron, OUrue med, 

Sidra^ Cider (of apples). 

Cidracayote, (Mex.) Fibrous water-melon, used for making tht 

duloe called eabellos de angel, 

Pipian, (C. A.) do. do. 

Cirvela, ( W. I.) Hog-plum, Spondiae. 

4 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



(T4) 

Coca, Coca-leaf for chewing, 3^ih. coca, 

,Cooo, Cocoa-nut, cocoa-palm^ Cboot, 

Goooloba, Searside grape, tree-j^rape. 

Vvadecaleta,(CvLh&) .,,,,,,, do. do. 

Col, .Cabbage not heading. Bras, oler, aeephala. 

Coquillo, ooquito, coroso, co- Falm-nuts of various kinds, like Uttlo ooooa- 

rozo, corojo, ooyol, , nuts. 

Ootopris, (Venz.) See Mamoncillo. 

Caruba, (Bogot4) See Granadllla, Tack, epedoea, 

Curuba, (Cauca) do. Fas. Ug, 

Cnra, (Bogota) See Aguacate. 

Dominico, (S. A.) Kind of banana. 

Encaroeladas, (Mex.) Pecan-nuts, Juglans olio, 

Frijol, frisol, \ ^ Eidney-beans, many species and varielleii. 

PJiaseoluSj etc, 

Fruta bomba, (Cuba) See Papaya. 

Frutilla, (Peru) fresa, Strawberry. 

Qalanga, (Cuba) Tellow malanga-root. Arum colooasia, 

Garzigonzalo, (Venz.) J&cana, (P. B.) 

Garbanzos,* Chick-peas, Oicer, 

Gombombd, quimbomb6, Okra, gombo, Sibis, eseulen. See Bomb6. 

Granadilla, Granadillas, or passion-vine fhut, of varioaa 

kinds ; water-lemons, bel-apple, &o. 

Ouruboy (N, Q,) do. do. 

^ofl^, (Bogot4) do. do. 

ParcAa, (a. A.) do. do. 

PoMonano, (Cuba)...' do. do. 

Brosella, (CubS) Tahiti gooseberry, Oicca disticha et raeemaia, 

Gnacal, Large round calabash, or bowl made of it, 

Ores^euf* 

Goaoo, EuacOy Snake antidote-plant, Mikania, Ariskiochia. 

Gnarapo, Cane-juice, Saocharum, 

Guagtd, Kind of malanga-root, Arum coUtwn, 

Guan4bana, Sour-sop, Annona m^iricata, 

Guandu, (Cuba) Pigeon-pea, Ojft. ec^, 

Guava, Spanish word (Nic.) .,,,S€e Algarroba. 

Guayaba, Guava {English tcord)^ Fsidivm, 

Guineo (pli&tano gulneo), Banana, Musa, 

Haba, Broad-beans, horse-beans, Fdba, 

Hicaco, Icaco, Coco-plum, Chrys, Icaco, 

Huaoo, See Gnaoo. 

Huacamote, macamote, (Mex.)./S!06 Yuca. 

Hule, Gum-elastic. Eevea. See Ule. 

Icaco, Coco-plum, Chrys, See Hicaco. 

J&cana, (P. B.) See Garzigonzalo. 

J agua, (Cuba) Genipap, size of orange, Genipa Americanm. 

CarutOy (Venz.) do. do. See also M.&moneil\o 

Jicara, (C. A., Mex.) Calabash, tree-gourd. Ores, msfete. 

Tohtma, (S, A.) do. do. do. 

Jobo, jobito, hobo, (Cuba) Hog-plum, Sjpotulias, 

JoootSy {C, A..) do. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



( 76 ) 

Lechosa, (Venz.) See Papaya. 

Lucnma, (Peru and Chile) Lucuma. 

Locma^ (Ecuador) do. 

Madrono, (Yenz.) Wild cocoa and other plants. 

Maduro, A ripe plantain. 

Malanga, (Caba) ^. .Mnlanga-root, white, Ara^m aagU. 

Oeuma, (Venz.) do. do. 

Mamey, (S. A.) Mammee-apple, large, round fruit, yollcr 

flesh, and one or more large, rough seeds, 
Mammea Americana, 

Mamey amariUOf .,^. ,,,,.*,. do. do. 

Mamey de Santo Domingo^ .... do. do. 

Mamey-sapote, Mammee-sapota, large heartnshaped fruit, 

reddish flesh, and one large polished seed 
with large scar, Lucuma mammasa, 

Mamey Colorado^ do. do. 

Sapote^mamey, « do. do. 

Sapote, (East Cuba) do. do. 

Mamon, (Cuba) Smooth custard apple, Annona glabra, 

Anon^ (Venz.) do. do. 

Mamoncillo, (Cuba) Honey-berry, Genip, Mdicocea Hjttga, 

AnonciUOf (Central Cuba) .... do. do. 

Mamon f {Yenz.) do. do. 

Cotoperia^ (Venz.) A variety of do. do. 

Mamoncillo, (Puerto Principe) .Hog custard apple, Annona huUata, 

Zaurely (Cuba) do. 

AnoneiUo de Ouba^ (Holg.) . . . do. 

Mango, .'. . .Mango, Mangifera, 

Mani, (S. A.) Sm Cacahuate. 

Manire, (Venz.) Wild custard apple, AwMma, 

Maranon, (Cuba, C. A.) .Cashew-apple and cashew-nut. 

Po;«iZ, (P. R.)..* do. do. 

i/*r«i, (Venz.) do. do. 

Maya, pina de raton, (Cuba) . . .Bromelia- fruit, BromeUa karaUu. 

Pinuela, (C. A.) do. do, 

Moniato, (Cuba) See Boniato. 

Kancer, (Cuba) Locust-berry, Byrson, 

Nanoe, (S. A.) do. do. 

Ndndte^ {0, A,) do. do. 

Nispero, (Spain) Medlar. Mespiliu. 

Nispero, (West Cuba, C. A.). . .Nisberry or Sapodilla, round, size of peach, 

with various black seeds, Ackrae 3aeoU» 

SapotCj (East Cuba) do. do. 

Niepero-sc^ltoie, (Cuba) do. do. 

Ohioo sapoUj (Mex.) do. do. 

SapotiUo, do. do. 

^Tame, Yam, Dioacorea, 

Ocuma, (Venz.) iSs* Malanga. 

Pacana, (Cuba) Pecan-nut, Juglane cUo, 

Sncaredada^ Q&.ex.) do. do. 

Pacay, (Peru) See Algarroba, Ingou 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(70) 

Pajuil, (P. K.) Se4 Marafion. 

Palm^ (Cuba) Falma real Cabbage-palm, Oreodox. ng. 

Palmiche, (Cuba) Nut of cabbage-palm, 0-ho, reg, 

Palmiche, (Veuz.) Palm-cabbage, do. 

PalmUo^ {Cnbtk) do. do. 

Palo bobo, (N. G.) Tree-fern. 

Palta, (Pern) See Aguaoate. 

Papaya, (C. A.) Papaw of W. I., Carica papaya / not the 

papaw of the U. S., which is Aaiminu 
triloba. 

thita hotnha, (Cuba) do. do. 

Lechomy (Venz.) do. do. 

Pasionaria, (Cuba) See Granadilla. 

Paroha, (Peru) See do. 

Pataste, (C. A.) Wild cocoa, 7%eobroma. 

Patilla, (N. G., Venz.) Water-melon. See Sandia. 

Pejebai, Palm-chestnuts. 

Penca, /rojki, of the botanist,.. A peculiar leaf or branch, or both; as of 

palms, ferns, aloe-plants, etc. 

Pina, Pine-apple, Ananaea eat, 

Pinuela, Bromelia-fruit, Brom, lor, 

Pinon, (Venz.) Physio-nut, Gumae purgeme, 

Pinon de hotica, do. do. 

Pinon botija^ (Cuba) do. do. 

pinon, (Mex.) Pine-nut, Pin/ue eduUe, 

Pipian, (Nic. ) See Cidracayote. 

Pita, Fine fibre of bromelia,used for sewing-thread. 

Pitajaya, pitahaya, Pitahaya, several kinds of cactus fruit similar 

to prickly pear. 

Pl&tano, Plantain, Muea, 

P14tano guin^o, Banana, do. 

Pomarosa, Bose-apple, Mugenia jambaea, 

Bepollo, Hard-head cabbage. Brae. oUr, eapitata, 

Salvadera, jabiya, (Cuba) Sand box-tree, Hura, 

Aeuapaj CS. Q.) do. do. 

e^5i^, (Venz.) do. do. 

Sandia, (Cuba, Mex.) Water-melon, CUrul. vtd. 

PatiUa,{N.Q.) do. do. 

Bapotdy ...1. This name in some places is given to the 

small, round fruit, with black seeds, 
Aehrae eapota^ and is called Ifxepero^ and 
Sapote-fuepero in other places. This is 
the Sapodilla or Nis berry of the English. 
—2. The name is applied, also, to another 
larger and heart-shaped fruit, with one 
brown, polished seed, Lucuma mammoea^ 
otherwise Mamey Colorado^ Mamey-eapote^ 
Sapote-mamey. In English, Mammee-sjk- 
pota. See Zapote. 

Bapote bianco, (Mex.) White sapote, Caesimiroa, 

Sapote negro, (Mex.) Black sapote, Di9»pyroe laur\folia. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(77) 

Sapote-mamey, See Mamey-sapote. 

Sapotilla, iS!w Niapero. 

Sapoyol, (Nic) Ihdce made of seed of maminee-sapota. 

Sarapia, (Venz.) Tonqain bean. JHpteris, 

rap«, (N.G.) do. 

Sidra, Cider. See Cidra. 

Tagua, Vegetable ivory-nut, Phytel, 

Toronja, (Caba) Shaddock, OUrue dee. 

Tortilla, (Mex. and C. A.) See Arepa. 

Totuma, (Venz.) See Jicara. 

Tuna, (S. A.) Prickly pear, Barbary fig, Indian fig, Oaotia 

tuna, 
Eigo ehtmbOy (Spain) ' do. do. 

Ule,. hale, c&acbo, India-rubber, Hewa, Siphonia, 

TJva de caleta, Sea-side grape, Ooeoloba. 

Verde, An unripe plantain, Muea. 

Yaca, (Cuba) Jack-fruit, AH, ectr, integ, 

Yautia, ..Kind of malanga, Arum, Its tops make 

edldlu, 

Yuca, Ynca-root, JaJtropha manihot This root fur- 
nishes the AJmidan of South America or 
Farinha of Braal, and Tbpioeay and also 
the Casada-hread of the West Indies. It 
is not the Tueca of the botanists. 
ifMOoofRO^, fiMimmofo, (Mex.).. do. do. 

Zapotei See Sapote. A name applied by the aborigi- 
nal Mexicans to yarious succulent fruits of 
very different fSuniU«p. The initial letter 
sbccid bQ & 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PAET IL 



VEEBS. 

I.— AUXILIARY VERBS. 

1. 
Thb auxiliary verb Habeb, to have. 

Injmitive Mood. 
Pbebent. Past. 

BabeVy to have. Saber habido^ to have had. 

Participles. 
BdbiendOy haviDg. Sdbido^ had. 



To he, 
td has. 
ilha, 



To hahia, 
t4 hahias, 
el habi4Jby 



To hube^ 
t& hubiste, 
il hubOy 



Ind'icatwe Mood. 
Present. 

I have. nosotros hemos, we have, 

thon hast. tosotros habeis^ yon have, 

he has. ellos han, they have. 

Imperfect. 

I had. nosotros hdbiamos, we had. 

thou hadst. vosotros hoMaiSy yon had. 

he had. ellos hoMam^ they had« 

Past Definite. 



I had. 
thon hadst. 
he had. 



nosotros hubimos, we had. 
vosotros hubisteiSy yon had. 
ellos hubiSroUy they had. 



Vo hctbre, I shall have. 
tu hahrdSy thon shalt have. 
il habrdy he shall have. 



Future. 

nosotros habrSmoSy 
vosotros hahr^iSy 
elhs habrdn. 



we shall have, 
yon shall have, 
they shall have, 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



( 79 ) 

Past Indefinite. 

Fo Tie hctbido, I have bad. nos, hemoB hibido^ we Lave had. 
tu has hahidOy thou hast had. fios, hdbeis habido^ you have had. 
el ha haibido, he has had. elloa han habido^ they have had 

Pluperfect. 

To hdbia hahido^ I had had. 

t& hahias hdbidOy thon hadst had. 

SI haibia habido^ he had had? 

nasotros habiamos habido^ we had had. 

vosotros hahiais hoMdo^ yon had had. , 

elloB hdbian h^bido, they had had. 

Past Anteeiob. 

To hubs hahido^ I had had. 

1/& hubiste habido^ thon hadst had. 

il hubo hdbido^ he had had. 

nosotroa hubimos habido^ we had had. 

wwiroi hubUteia hahido^ you had had. 

elloa hubUron hdbidoy they had had. 

Future Anterior. 

To hdbrS hahido^ I shall have had. 

t& habrds habido^ thou shalt have had. 

il hahrd habido, he shall have had. 

nosotroa hahrSmoa habido^ we shall have had. 

voaotroa haibrSia hctbido^ you shall have had. 

elloa hcibrdn hoMdo^ they shall have had. 

Svhjunctive Mood. 

Present. 

To ha/ya^ that I may have. rioa, ha/yamo8y that we may have. 

t& ha/yaa^ that thon mavst have. f)oa, hayaia^ that yon may have. 

kl haya^ that he may have. elha hayan^ that they may have. 

Imperfect. 

To hubieroy habriOy hitbieae, that I might have. 

PA htiMeraa, hdbriaa^ hubieaea, that thon mightst have. 

il hfibiera, hahria^ hubieae^ that he might have. 

naa. hubUramoa^ habriamoa^ hubieaemoa, that we might have. 

voa hubieraia^ hdbriaia^ htibUaeiay that yon might have. 

elloa huibieran^ habrian^ hubieaen^ that they might have. 

Past Indefinite. 

To haya hdbido^ that I may have had. 

t4 hayaa habido^ that thon mayst have had. 

il haya haMdo^ that he may have had. 

naaotroa hayamoa habido^ that we may have had. 

voaotroa hayaia haMdo^ that yon may have had. 

elU^ hayan habido^ that they may have had. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



(.80) 



Pltjpkkfbot. 
To huhiera^ hahria^ hubiese .habido^ 
tti huhieras^ habricM^ huhieses hdbido^ 
el hvibiera, habria, hubiese hdbido, 
nosotros hubUramos^ habriamos^ hubiesemos hdbido^ 
fiosot/ros hubieraU^ hdbriais^ hubieseis habido^ 
ellos hubieran^ habriany hubiesen hcbbido^ 



tr-g* 



» 5. 

PCKJ 



Vo hubierey I shall have. 
iu hubieres^ thou shalt have, 
il hubiere^ he shall have. 



FUTTJEK. 

no8. hubiSrejnos, 
voB, hubiereis, 
ellos hubieren^ 



we shall have, 
you shall have, 
they shall have. 



Conditional. 



Yo Tiabria (or hubiei*a\ 
pA Jiabj'iaSy 
il Jidbria^ 

nosotros habriamos^ 
vosotros Tuibriais^ 
ellos Tiabrian^ 



I should have, 
thou shouldst have, 
he should have, 
we should have, 
you should have, 
they should have. 



Tub auxiliary verb Tener, to have, to possess. 
Injmitive Mood, 



Tener^ 



Pjjesent. Past. 

to have. Saber tenido, to have had. 

Participles. 
Teniendoy having. Tenido^ liad. 

Indicative Mood. 

PRESEirr. 



Yo tengo 
tvL tienesj 
el tienCy 


I have. nosotros tenemos, 
thou hast. vosotros teneis^ 
he has. ellos tienen^ 

Impekfeot. 


we have, 
you have, 
they have. 


Yo tenia^ 
(n teniasj 
il tenia^ 


I had. nosotros teniamos^ 
thou hadst. vosotros teniais^ 
he had. ellos tenian^ 

Past Djefinitb. 


we had. 
you had. 
they had. 


Yo tuve^ 
ta tuviste^ 
il tuvo^ 


I had. nosotros tuvimos^ 
thou hadst. vosotros tuvisteis^ 
he had. ellos tuvieron, 


we had. 
you had. 
they had. 




Digitized b^ 


Uoogle 



(81) 



Future. 

To tendrS^ I shall have. nos. tendrimos^ we shall have. 

tu tendrds, thou shalt have. vos, tendreis^ you shall have, 
il tendrdy he shall have. elloa tendrdn, they shall hava 

Past Indefinitb. To he tmidOy I have had. 

Plupeefeot. To hdbia tenido, I had had. 

Past Anteeiob. To hube tenido^ I had had. 

Futube Antbbiob. To hdbre tenidOy I shall have had. 

Imperative Mood. 

tengamoSy let us have. 

Ten td^ have. tened vosotroa^ have ye. 

tenga SI, let him have. tengan elloa, let them have. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Peesent. 

To tenga, that I may have. 

p& tengaSy that thou mayst have. 

SI tenga, that he may have. 

noaotros tengamos, that we may have. 

f>o8otros tengais, that you may have. 

elhs tengan, that they may have. 

Impeefeot. 

To tutiera, tendria, tuvieae, that I might have. 

t4 tuvieraa, tendriaa, tuvieaea, that thou mightst have 

il tuviera, tendria, Puvieae, that he might have. 

noaotroa tuvUramoa, tendriamoa^ tuviSaemoa, that we might have. 
toaotroa tunUraia, tendriaia, tuviSaHa, that you might have. 

elloa tieoiercm, tend/rian, tuvieaen, that they might have. 

Past Indefinite. To Jiaya tenido, that I may have had. 

Plupebfeot. 
Yo huhiera, hdbria, hubieae tenido, that I might have had. 

Futitee. 

To twoiere, I shall have. noa, tuvUremoa, we shall have. 

ta tutierea, thou shalt have. voa, tuvUreia, you shall have. 
U tuviere, he shall have. elloa tuvieren, they shall have 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(82) 
3. 

He visto 4 tu padre hoy- Td dices liaber visto d uu 
bermana en el baile ; no lo ereo, pues lia quedado todo 
ol dia en easa. Creo que tti has dado este libro d mi 
hcjrmano. Hemos dado un festejo,^ en donde concurrio 
lo electo de la eiudad.^ Yosotros no liabeis visto mi 
palacio; no podeis imaginaros eon que primor* esta 
adomado. Eilos me ban convidado* a que mese anoebe* 
a su easa. Ap^nas babia 70 andado un cuarto de bora, 
cuando eneontr6 k un bombre que iba cazaiido.* Creo 
que tti no babias presenciado^ esta contienda.® Tengo 
en easa dos bermosos caballos, que los be comprado esta 
semana. Tu tienes muebos protectores ; por este medio 
loffraras tu intento.® Aunque tiene mala fama/® con 
todo tiene muebos amigos. Tenemos en nuestro jardin 
Unas primorosas flores, que las bemos, comprado este 
verano.^^ jTeneis algo que bacer dntes de ir d misa?'' 
Mis primes tienen en poco a mi tio. Tuvlmos que bacer 
tantos esfuerzos que por un momento crei que no sal- 
driamos del aprieto. { Tuvisteis vuestro cocne, cuando 
estuvisteis en el baile % Tuvieron que salir del cuarto, 
pues no podian aguantar el bumo. Es menester tenerle 
por su palabra. Pues que be de tener la calentura, 
meior vale que la tenga abora que despues. Teniendo 
su bermano tanto que bacer, no podrd venir boy. El 
babia tenido un grandisimo dolor de cabeza, y despues 
la fiebre. Apenas babiamos tenido la noticia de la 
Uegada^ de su amigo, cuando fuimos d visitarle. Si, me 
acuerdo que vosotros bablais tenido la orden de partir. 

LNo babian tenido ellos la easa de su tio % Si bubiera 
uena fe,^* seria mayor la solidez^* de los contratos.^* 
Tendria mucbas mas riquezas, si no las bubiese gastado 
en sus viages. Si bubiesemos guardado por lo m6nos la 
mitad de la bacienda, tendriamos algo para dejar k 
nuestros bijos. Si te bubieses levantado mas temprano, 
babrias alinorzado con nosotros. Si este pobre tuviera 
su pan de cada dia asegurado, seria mas dicboso que el 
mas rico banquero.^^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



(83) 



> feast. * the most distinguished society of the town. * beauty. * iiv 
vited. ' last night. * who went hunting. ' present. < quarrel. * attain 
your wishes. »» bad reputation. »» summer, la mass. »» arrival. »♦ good 
fiiith. " solidity. »• contracts. " banker. 



The AUXILIA.EY VERB Ser, to be. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Past. . 

<Sw, to be. Hiiber sido, - to have been. ' 

Paetioiples. 
Siendo^ being. Sido, been. 



To soy ^ 
ttteres^ 
ilesy 



Yo era^ 
tu eras, 
SI era, 



Tofui, 
P&fuiste, 



To serS^ 
idserds, 
Userd, 

Past iNDEFonTE, 



Plupebfeot. 
Past Aktebiob. 
Futube Anteriob. 



Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

I am. nosotros somas, we are. 

thou art. vosotros sois, you are. 

he is. ellos son, they are. 

Impeefeot. 

nosotros iramos^ 
vosotros Srais, 
ellos eran, 

Past Definite. 

nosotros fuimos, 
vosotros fuUteis, 
ellos/uSron, 

Futube. 

nosotros serimos, 
vosotros sereis, 
ellos serdn. 

To Tie sido, I have been. 

To hdbia sido, I had been 

To hube sido, I had been. 

To TuibrS sido, I shall have been. 



I was. 
thou wast, 
he was. 



I was. 
thou wast. 
he was. 



I shall be. 
thou shalt be, 
he shall be. 



we were, 
you were, 
they were. 



we werQ. 
you were, 
they were. 



we shall be. 
you shall be. 
they shall bet 



Irnperatioe Mood. 



Si i/&, 
tea el^ 



be thou, 
let him be. 



seamos, 
sed vosotros, 
scan ellos, 



let us be. 

be ye. 

let them be. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(84) 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Presbnt. 

To aea^ that I may be. nos. seamos^ that we may b«. 

tA BeaSj that thou mayst be. 'cos, seats, that you may be. 

H sea, that he may be. ellos sean, that they may b6 

Imperfect. 

Yofu&ra, seria^faese, that I might be. 

tufuera^, serias, fueses, that thou mightstbe. 

Sl/uera, seria^fuese, that he might be. 

nosotros fueramos, seriamos, faesemos, that we might be. 

vosotrosfuerais, seriais, fueseis, that you might be. 

ellos fueran, serian,/uesen, that they might be. 

''^AST Indefinite. Yo haya sido, that I have been. 

Pluperfect. To huhiera, hahria, huhiese sido, that I had becfc 

Future. 

Tofuere, that I shdl be. nos. fueremos, that we shall be. 

tufueres, that thou shalt be. vos.fuereis, that you shall be. 
ilfuerey that he shall be. ellos fueren, that they shall be. 

Future Perfect. To hubiere sido, that I shall have been. 

5. 

Examples, 

Yo Boy el mas adcjantado en la escuela,^ y esa es la 
causa porque todos me envidian.* Td eres por lo menos 
cuatro pulgadas^ mas alto* que tu hermano, pero el es 
mas diestro* que tu. i Ouantos^ son Vms. ? Creo que 
somos unos quince, y todos de buen apetito. Tu cuuada 
es la mujer mas virtuosa que yo conozco. Todos som'os 
mortales. Vosotros sois aun muy jovenes, y con todo 
sabeis inas que vuestras primas. Era, si no me engafia la 
memoria, el cuatro de Enero. Tu no puedes acordarte de 
ello, puesto que eras aun muy joven. Eramos aun muy 
chicos,^ cuando nuestro padre murio. Mis primos erau 
aun de muy tierna edad, cuando empezdron A ir a la 
oscuela. El hombre virtuoso es siempre dichoso, pero 
el raalo es siempre desgraciado. Yo ful 61 que dio la 

S)rimera idea de la construccion de este puente.® Mi tio 
u6 el mas babil m6dico de toda la ciudad. Fu^ron los 
Espanoles los que conquistdron^ el imperio de Mejico 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(8^ 

Los Egipcios fueron hombres sabios, cultivando todaa 
las ciencias j emprendiendo^® las may ores cosas. A unque 
sean a veces" los malos los que prosperan," no crea v m. 
sin embargo que sean feliees. j Cree Vm. que sea aquel 
hombre el que^* nos visit6 la semana pasada ? Si esta 
montafia fuera algo mas baia, subiria hasta la cima" 

Eara ver todos los Srededores^^ que segun^^ los aldeanos," 
an de ser muy hermosos. Si yo fuera mas instruido, 
obtendria esta colocacion. Si nosotros fueramos fran- 
ceses, nos pondrian en prision, estando en guerra con el . 
reino de Francia. 

» school, • to envy. « incheB. * taller. * clever. • how many. 
^ little. « bridge. • to conq^uer. " to undertake. " sometimes. " to 
prosper. " he who. " summit. *» environs. " according to. " peasants, 

6. 

JExercises. 

I am the eldest^ of the family, and yet I am the least. 
Thou art foolish^ if thou believest it. The horse is the 
most useful animal. We are fewer in number, and yet we 
are the stronger. When you were but seven years old 
you were not so tall as your cousin. All these ladies 
were French.^ K I were young, I would immediately go 
to America. Do you think me to be so foolish as to do 
that ? K this house were ours we would never sell it. 
If we were rich, we would give much alms.* If your 
brother were a painter* he could earn much money. 
However rich you may be, believe me, that fate^ can 
humiliate you. They assured me, that he was the 
cleverest of all. We must be the first to bring him this 
news. We should be much more happy if we were 
more contented. They would be more condescending^ 
if they were not too arrogant.® 

1 el mayor. > loco. ' francesa. * limosna. * pintor. * suerte ad- 
/er^a. ' condescendiente. ** presumido. 



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7. 
The auxiuabt yebb Estab, to bb. 

Infinitive Mood. 





Pebsent. 


Past. 


Bttary 


to be. 


Haber estado^ to have been. 
Pabtioiplbs. 


EitandOy 


being. 


EstadOy been. 



Yo estoy^ 
eleatd^ 

Yo estabcu 
tu estoibasy 
H estdba^ 

Yo estuve^ 
tu estwoiste^ 
el estuvo^ 

Yo esta/ri^ 
tu esta/rds^ 
H estardy 

Past Indefinitk, 

Plupkefeot. 



Indicative Mood, 
Present. 
I am. nosotros estamos^ 

thoa art. vosotros estais^ 

he is. ello8 eatdn^ 

Ihpebfeot. 
I was. nosotros. estdbamos^ 

thou wast. vosotros estdbais^ 

he was. ellos estdbaUy 

Past Definite. 

I was. nosotros estutAmoSy 

thou wast, Dosotros estuvUteiSj 

he was. ellos estuvUron^ 

Future. 

I shall be. nos. estarSmoSy 

thou shalt be. vos. estarSiSy 
he shall be. ellos esta/rdUy 

Yo lie estadoy 

Yo hctbia estadoy 



we are. 
you are. 
they are. 



we were, 
you were, 
they were. 



Past Anterior. 
Future Anterior. 



Yo Jitibe estado^ 
Yo hcbbre estadOy 

Imperative Mood. 



we were, 
you were, 
they were. 

we shall be. 
you shall be. 
they shall be. 

I have been. 

I had been. 

I had been. 

I shall have been* 



Est&t/dy 
ssUil, 



be. 

hi him be. 



estemoSy 
estad vosotroSy 
esten ellos^ 



let us be. 

be ye. 

let them be. 



SubjuncUve Mood, 
Present. 



Vb estS^ that I may be. 
yA esteSy that thou mayst be. 
il este, that he may be. 



nosotros estemos^ that we may be. 
vosotros esteisy that you may be. 
ellos esten, that they may be. 



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Imperfeot. 

Fo estuviera^ eataria^ eatuviese^ that I might be. 

Pd estuvieras^ eatariaSy eatuvieses^ that thoa mightsl be. 

il eBtuviera^ estaria^ estuviese^ that he might be. 
nos, estwoUramos^ estariamos^ eatuviSsemos^ that we might be. 

vos, eatfwoierais^ eatariais^ eatuvieaeia, that yon might be. 

9Uoa eatuvieran^ eata/rian^ eatuvieaen^ that they might be. 

Past Indefinite. To Tiaya eatado^ tliat I may have been. 

Pluperfect. 
To huhiera^ hdbria^ Mibieae eatado^ that I might have been. 

FUTUBE. 

To eatwoiere^ that I shall be. 

t& eatuvierea^ that thon shalt be. 

il eatv/dere^ that he shall be. 

noaotroa esPwoUremoa^ that we shall be. 

toaotroa eatuvUreia^ that yon shall be. 

elloa eatuvieren^ that they shall be. 

FuTUSE Pebfeot. To hubiere eatadoj that I shall have been. 

8. 

ObSEEVATIONS on the VEBB8 SeB AND EsTAR. 

One of the greatest difficulties of the Spanish lan^age 
h the use of the two verbs ser and estar, both simifjdng 
" to be ;" particularly so, as one cannot be indifferently 
used for the other. 

Ser is used to express the qualities inhereoit or essen- 
tial to persons or thinffs ; the state of fixed mind ; the 
materials of which a thing is made ; the condition, em- 
ployment, rank, trade, &c., of persons ; the object, pur- 
pose, destination, &c., of persons or things. 

£star is employed to denote the accidental or tempo- 
rary qualities or affections of persons or things, and is 
followed in English by a present participle. 

rhis man is good. Este hombre ea bneno. 

This man is in good health. Este hombre eatd bneno. 

He was wicked during his youth. El fuS malo en sn juventud. 

He was sick in his youth. El eatv/oo malo en sn juventud. 

Ink is black. La tinta ea negra. 

This ink is whitish. Esta tinta eatd blanca. 

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He is very tall. £1 « muy alto. 

He is placed very high. El estd muy alto. 

His watch is gold. Su reloj es de oro. 

His watch is broken. Su reloj estd quebrado. 

Is this wine good ? ^Bs bueno este vino? 

To icj followed by an active participle, is translateJ 
hy esta/r ; as, 

They are playing. Ellos estan jngando. 

9. 

EscampUs. 

Estaba vestido de paQo azul/ y chaleco^ de terciopelo' 
pardo.* jNo eras tu 61 que estaba sentado* en el jardin 
con mi padre y mi tio? Este hombre esta tan triste* 
que no puedo adivinar'^ lo que le habrd sucedido.® Pues 
que estamos ahora todos juntos,^ hablemos del asunto 
que Vm. me propuso ayer. Estando yo en Madrid, 
muri6ron mi padre y mi madre. Estan en casa sus 
padres de Vm. ? No, senor, estan con el tio en el Prado. 
Mis primas estaban tan cansadas, cuando vinieron del 
paseo, que, luego que Uegaron, se fueron d acostarse y 
durinieron^® hasta muy tarde en la mafiana. Estabamos 
justamentepara salir,^*x;uando recibimos la noticia de la 
muerte de tu tio, que estaba en Viena. La semana 
pasada estuve dos veces en el teatro ; la primera vez me 
gusto mucho ; la musica era primorosa ; pero la segunda 
vez que estuve, no quede mas que una bora, pues los 
papeW^ eran malisimos. jNo estuviste en Berlin el 
alio pasado ? Si, k la vuelta^^ de Paris fui alii, y aun tu 
hermano estuvo a visitar conmigo el museo. Estaran 
tambien alii mi cuQado y mi cunada ? La semana que 
viene, tendrdn lugar los desposorios" de mi prima, todos 
los parientes estaran presentes; tambien sin duda tu 
padre y tu madre estaran alii. To conozco alguien quo 
no estara, y aquel soy yo. Todos estos soldados estaran 
alojados^^ en las casas particulares.^® 

» blue cloth. « waistcoat. * velvet. « gray. » who sat. • sad. ' to 

guess. ' happen. • altogether. *o to sleep. " we were on the point of 

going out. »« the parts. " on the return, " engagftro«4nt of marriage 
** to quarter. »• private house. 

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10. 
EtiatTvples on the 8idju7i<:hve. 

I Que le importa a Vm. que yo este con cuidado 6 no, 
B\ yo no le pido nada ? Sin embargo que mi liermano 
este todo el dia mano sobre mano/ con todo adelanta 
mas que yo. For mas malo que est6, no ir6 4 visitarle, 
Dues 61 no vino cuando yo estaba en peligro de vida. 
Si estuviera armado, iria contra aquellos ladrones y los 
mataria sin remision.^ Si mi tia estuviese tan mala, 
como tus hermanos me quieren persuadir no iria a 
pasear tan lejos. Si tus hermanos estuviesen tan airados,^ 
como td lo dices, no cantarian, como lo hacen, toda la 
mafiana. No es menester que todos ellos esten presentes ; 
basta con uno que entienda bien la cosa. Si mi libro 
estuviera encuadernado, valdria mucho mas. No sabia 
que me estuvieses esperando; ahace mucho tiempo que 
estas aqui ? Bien te lo habia dicho, que estuvieses aqui 
quieto, nasta que yo viniera. 

» idle. « without mercy. » angry. 
11. 

Exercises. 

My cousin is so ill that we have no hope, and I am 
so very sorry, for he was my best friend. The sky^ is so 
clouded,^ that I fear we shall have a storm. 1 was jus t 
on the point of going out when it began to rain.* We 
were all at dinner, when all at once we heard* a great 
cannonade.* It was the enemy who was about two 
miles* distant from us. Art thou ill ? Yes, I am a little 
ill.^ During the illness of my uncle we were several 
times at his house. I shall be ready to assist you when 
you want it. Shall you be in the country* to morrow 
afternoon? He must be on a journey,® for I have not 
seen him this last fortnight. Although I am ill, my 
head does not pain me. it is necessary that all these 
»^0(»ds be well packed,*^ that they may arrive without 
damage.*^ If you were at this ball you would greatly 
auiiise yourself. K Uiis house were well built'^ we would 
buy it. 

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* oielo. « oubierto. 
legaas. ' indispuesto. 
»» odificar. 



> Hover. < ouando oimos. * cafioneo. • unas dot 
B en el campo. * de viage. ^ enfardelar. u daao. 



n.— REGULAR VERBS. 
12. 

IST COKJUGATION IN AE. — AmAB, TO LOVB. 

Injmitive Mood. 





PSESENT. 


Past. 


Amar^ 


to love. 


Eaber cmado^ to have loved. 
Pabtioiplks. 


Amanda^ 


loving. 


AmadOj loved. 



Indicative Mood, 







Pbssent. 




Yo amo^ 
il ama^ 


I love, 
thou lovest. 
he loves. 


no8otro8 amamas^ 
vosotros amais^ 
elloa aman, 


we love, 
you love, 
they love. 



Yo amaba^ I loved. 

t& amcibas^ thou lovedst. 

SI amdba^ he loved. 



Impsbfeot. 

nosotros amdbamos^ we loved. 

tosotrot amdbaisj you loved. 

ello8 amaban^ they loved. 



Yo amS, 
tu amaste^ 
el amS^ 



Yo amari^ 
t/A amarda^ 
il amcurd^ 



Past Definite. 

I loved. nosotros amdmos^ we loved, 

thou lovedst. vosotros amdsteis^ you loved, 

he loved. ellos amdroriy they loved. 



I shall love, 
thou shalt love, 
he shall love. 



Futuee. 

7108, ama^imoa^ 
DOS. amareis^ 
ellos amardn^ 



we shall love, 
you shall love, 
they shall love 



Past Indefinite. 



Yo Tie amado^ 
1/& has amadOy 
SI ha amado^ 
nosotros hemos amado^ 
nosotros habeis amado^ 
ellos han amadoy 



I have loved, 
thou hast loved, 
he has loved, 
we have loved, 
you have loved, 
they have loved. 



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Pluperfect. 



Yo hafna amado^ 
td hoMas amado^ 
SI hdbia amado^ 
noMtros habiamos cmado^ 
vosotraa TuMais amado^ 
ellos haMan amctdoy 


I had loved, 
thou hadst loved* 
he had loved, 
we had loved, 
you had loved, 
they had loved. 


Past Antekiob. 


To hube cmado^ 
t& hubiste amado, 
SI hubo amado^ 
noaotros hubimos amado^ 
vosotros hubUUis amado^ 
ellos hubieron amado^ 


I had loved, 
thou hadst loved, 
he had loved, 
we had loved, 
you had loved, 
they had loved. 


Fdtuee Anteeioe. 


Yo habrS amado^ 
tf& Tuibrds cmado^ 
SI hdbrd amado^ 
nosotros hdbrSmoa amado^ 
vo9otro8 hdbreU amado^ 
ello8 Mbrdn amado^ 


I shall have loved, 
tiiou shalt have loved. , 
he shall have loved, 
we shall liave loved, 
you shall have loved, 
they shall have loved. 


Lrvperative Mood. 


am^mos^ let us love. 
Ama tA, love thon. amad, love ye. 
Q^ne Slj let him love. amen ellos, let them lova; 


Suhjunctive 


Mood. 


Present. 


Toame, 
t&amea^ 
Slcme, 

voeotroe ameU^ 


that I may love, 
that thou mayst love, 
that he may love, 
that we may love, 
that you may love, 
that they may love. 


Imperfeot. 



Yo ama/ra, amase, that I might love. 

ta amaras, amasee, that thou mightst love. 

SI amaray amase, that he might love. 

uQsotros amdramoB, amdsemos, that we might love. 

vosotros amdrais, amdseis, that you might love. 

ellos amaran, amasen, that they migl^t love. 



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CONTJITIONAL. 

Yo amara^ aniaria^ that I should love. 

t/& amaras^ amariasy that thoa shonldst love. 

hi ama/ra^ amcuria^ - that he should love. 

noBotroa amdramoB^ amanamoa^ that we should love. 

TosotroB amdraiB^ amariaiB^ that you should love. 

elloB amaran^ amarian^ that they should love. 

FUTUBE. 

Yo amare^ that I shall love. 

til oma/reBy that thou shalt love. 

el amarey that he shall love. 

noBotroB amdremoBy that we shall love. 

voBotroB amdreiBy that you shall love. 

elloB amaren^ that they shall love. 

Past Indefinite. Yo Kaya amado^ that I may have loved. 

Plupeefeot. 
Yo huhieray huhiese amado^ that I might have loved. 

Conditional Perfect. 
Yo huhiera^ habria amado^ that I should have loved. 

Future Perfect. 
Yo hubiere amado, that I shall have loved. 

13. 

JEffarnples, 

He tenido el honor de hablar a su tio. Su suegro^ ha 
tenido la desgracia de hacer una grande perdida. Tu- 
vimos el ^usto de hallar lo que estabamos buscando con 
tanta ansia.^ Dios nos ha hecho para amarle, y no para 
comprehenderle. Estudie Vm., no para saber mas, sino 
para saber mejor que los otros. Su hermano de Vm. 
me ha aconsejado* de esperar aun algun tiempo. He 
olvidado hacer la visita a su padre que me ha convidado 
varias voces. Yolviendo d casa tuve el ffusto de hallai 
a 8U hermano de Vm. en ella. Yendo* a la iglesia, en- 
contramos d sus primas de Vm. No pudiendo salir hoy, 
le suplico & Vm. me preste algunos ubros buenos. lifi 
hermana, vicndo que empezaba d llover, se volvio d su 
casa apresuradamentc.'* Estando malo, no podr6 ir al 
baile. El general no qiieriendo rendirse, fue traspasado* 

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ie una estocada.^ No estemos sordos a los ruegos de un 
hombre de tanto merito y & quien le persigue® una suerte 
tan triste. Estad prontos para salir a campafia; la 
patria 08 convoca® para acudir d su defensa contra un 
enemiffo invasor.*® \ Que est6n castigados estos mal- 
vados" con todo el rigor de la ley 1 sua atroces delitos** 
bien lo ban merecido. 

> father-in-law. • anxiety. • advised. * going to. » hastily. • nm 
iLrough. ' the blade of his sword. ^ persecutes. * convoke. >* invading 
enemy. »» villain. *> atrocious crimes. 

14. 

Durante las turbulencias^ del reinado^ de Cdrlos I. 
paso & Londres una aldeana' d buscar su colocacion* en 
alguna casa en calidad de criada, y no habiendo ballade 
eonveniencia, se vio precisada d entrar en una tabema 
para Uevar cerveza* d las casas. Viola un dia el fabri- 
eante de cerveza, que abastecia* d la tabema ; le ^arecio 
demasiado hermosa para que sirviese en un ministerio^ 
tan humilde, la Uevo d su casa, v se aficion6 tanto d ella, 
que poco tiempo despues la tomo por esposa.* Habiendo 
queaado.viuda* y con tantos bienes, cuaritos tenia su 
marido difunto,^® que la instituyo heredera ;" Mr. Hide, 
abogado, y que despues fue tan c61ebre bajo el nombre 
del conde de Clarendon, se encargo de arreglar los 
asuntos de la testamentaria, y viendo que su cliente*^ era 
poderosisiraa, no paro hasta obtener su mano. De este 
raatrimonio^^.nacio^* una hija que fu6 mujer de Jay me 
n.** y madre de Maria y de Ana, reinas de Inglaterra. 

» disturbance. « the rei^. » a countrywoman. * situation. » beer, 
• fnmish. » service, •..wife. • widow. " deceased husband. >» heiress. 
• client. " marriage. " bom. '» James. 

15. 

Mcercises. 

Amr, a powerful king of Asia, was at war with au- 
otlier king who conquered* and captured^ him, put hiui 
into chains^ and caused him to be watched* closely. 
Amr, who had eaten nothing all day long, became 
hungry* towards the evenino:, and desired to eat^. A 

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piece of' meat was brought' him, which he was told to 
roast? by the fire^ which was in his prison.^° "While the 
unhappy king was anxiously^^ waiting for his supper,^* a 
dog came, who was as hungry as he, seized^ the piece 
of meat and ran oflf. The king wished to run after this 
thief, but he was prevented by his chains, and he began 
to laugh heartily." The watchmen, who had compas- 
gion on him, demanded of him, how he could laugh in 
so unfortunate a position ? " Why should 1 not laugh ?" 
said Amr. " When arranging my army in order of battle^* 
this morning, I saw 300 camels^*' go for the baggage*' 
which my steward assured me were not sufficient to 
transport^ my kitchen, and this evening a little dog has 
carried it away^^ in his mouth." ^ 

^ veneer. • tomar preso. ■ encadenar. < gnardar. » tener hambro. 
• pe'dir de comer. » trajo. » asar. • lumbre. >• prision. >» con ansia. 
w ««nft u piii6. 14 reir k carcajadas. " 6rden de batalla. »• oame]lo. 
• ■" " M boca. 



*• cena. " pill6. >* reir & carcajadas 
>• bagage. " transportar. »• Uevarse. 



16. 
2d conjugation in EK. — ^Temer, to feab. 

Tv/fmitwe Mood. 
Peksknt. Past. 

Temer^ to fear. Habeir temido^ to have feared. 

Pabtioiples. 
Temiendo^ fearing. Temido^ feared. 

Indicative Mood. 
Pbesent. 



To temoj 
tu temes^ 


I fear. nosotros tememos, 
thou fearest. vosotros temeU^ 
he fears. ellos temen^ 

Imperfect. 


we fear, 
you fear, 
they fear. 


To temia^ 
tA temias^ 
H temia, 


I feared. nosotros temiamos^ 
thou fearedst. vosotros temiais^ 
he feared. ellos temian^ 

Past Definite. 


we feared, 
you feared, 
tliey feared 


Yo temi, 
td temiste^ 
il temU, 


I feared. nosotros tem^mos, 
thou fearedst. eosotros temisteis^ 
he feared. ellos temieron^ 


we feared. 
you feared, 
they feared. 


' 


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FUTUKE. 

To temeri^^ I shall fear. nos, temerhnoSy we shall fear. 

td temerds, thou shalt fear. vos, temerSis^ you shall fear. 

il temerd^ he shall fear. elloa temerdn^ they shall fear 

Past Indefinite. To he temido^ I have feared. 

Pltiperfeot. To habia temido^ I had feared. 



To habia temido^ 
Past Antebiob. To hube temidoj 
FuTUBE Antebiob. To hdbri temido^ 



I had feared. 

I shall have feared. 



Imperative Mood. 



Teme tdy 



fear thou, 
let him fear. 



temcnnoSj 
temedy 
toman ellos^ 



let ns fear. 

fear ye. 

let them foar. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Pbesent. 
To temoy that I may fear. 

1/& temasy that thou mayst fear. 

il tema^ that he may fear. 

nosotros temamoSy that we may fear. 

Tosotros temaisy that you may fear. 

elhs temauy that .they may fear. 



Impeefeot. 
To temieray temiese^ 
td temieraSy temieses^ 
il temieray temiese^ 
nosotros temUramos, temiesemos, 
tosotroB temieraisy temieseis, 
ellos temieraUy temieseny 

Conditional. 
To temieray temeria^ 
1/& temieraSy temeriaSy 
il temieray temeria^ 
nosotros temiiramoSy temeriamoSy 
vosotros temiirais^ temeriaiSy 
ellos temieran, temerian. 



Futuee. 



To temiere^ 
t& temiereSy 
il temiere^ 
nosotros temiiremos, 
vosotros temiireis, 
ellos temitreriy 



that I might fear, 
that thou mightst fear, 
that he might fear, 
that we might fear, 
that you might fear, 
that they might fear. 

I should fear, 
thou shouldst foar. 
he should fear, 
we should fear, 
you should fear, 
they should fear. 

that I shall fear, 
that thou shalt fear, 
that he shall fear, 
that we shall fear, 
that you shall fear, 
that they shall fear. 



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Past Indefiniye. Yo haya temido^ that I may have feared. 

pLtTPEBFKCT. Yo hvhiera temido^ that I might have feared. 

Conditional Pebfkct. ^ 
Yo hubiera^ hdbria temido, that I should have feared. 

Future Pebfeot. Yo hubUre temido^ that I shall have feared. 

17. 

Examples, 

Siempre que me escribe, Ak memorias^ para toda la 
familia. Si vengo, no temas^ que olvide traer lo que te 
he prometido. Xa MaUbran canta primorosamente ;° 
me gusta mucho su gorgeo.* j A cudnto vende Vm. la 
vara* de este pafio?^ Este precio le liallo muy caro. 
El hombre de bien^ es estimaao, aun de los que no tienen 
probidad^ alguna, Cuando estaba en aquella casa de 
comercio, apenas tenia yo tiempo suficiente para comer. 
Mi hermana k los ocho afios ya sabia leer corrientemente 
y k los nueve ya escribia correctamente. Cuando mi 
hermano estaba en Madrid, gastaba mucho dinero ; mi 
padre le enviaba cad^ mes una cierta suma, y con todo 
no le bastaba para su sustento. Justamente acababa de 
llegar tu primo, cuando yo entre. Cuando viaj6 en 
Italia, visite las ruinas de Herculano y las halle muy 
interesantes. Sin duda tu primo me anuncio esta noticia 
para que me alegrase. Lo que nos sucedi6 fue, que 
siendo insuficiente el dinero que teniamos, no pudimos 
proseguir' miestro camino. Asi sucedio que dentro de 
pocos aflos se pobl6 casi toda la canaria. Ciceron escribio 
varias composiciones po6ticas. 

> remember kindly. * do not fear. * exquisitely. * shako. » the yard. 
• doth. » honorable man. ■ honesty. • continue. 

18. 
Exercises. 

I have invited your brother to-day to take some sup- 

f)er with me. Finding my brother there I conducted 
lim home. The house was scarcely built^ when it was 
destroyed' by fire. I write to him almost every week- 

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and it is rare that I do not receive a reply by return of 
post.' My uncle had five houses, which yielded* him 
10,000 pounds annually, he was a very honest man, who 
assisted me and honored me with his confidencr^. 
When we were in the country, we went hunting* every 
day and always brought something home. His father 
died on the 20th of February and his mother followed 
him a month later. I spoke to your father the day 
before yesterday* and he told me that you would set out 
for Spain shortly. 

> eonstroidOr a. • destruir, aniquilar. » k vuelta de oorreo. * reiidii. 
• aalir a caza. < anteayer. 

19. 

JExamples. 

Creo que hoy no ha entrado buque alguno en el puerto. 
El comandante del puerto me ha dicho que esta semana 
habian entrado mas de treinta buques, todos viniendo de 
las Indias occidentales.^ Ciceron ha escrito muchas 
oraciones que han merecido la aprobacion de todos los 
sabios. No bien hube yo visto que 61 me divistiba, 
cuando sali de la sala. Ap6nas habiamos hecho dos 
leguas cuando tuvimos que retroceder.* Me habia seu- 
tado un rato' en este poyo* para descansarme y aguardar 
a mi hermana, que nabia ido & coger algunas flores. 
Ym. me habia prometido de venir cada domingo por la 
tarde, y Vm. no ha venido ni siquiera una sola vez. 
I Quien sabe cuantos males habrdn causado va los ene- 
migos en aquellas fertiles provinciast Seran muchos 
los males que nuestro ej6rcito habra sufrido en esta 
campafia.* No ser6 yo quien te lo niegue. No sera 61 
el primeroque se atreva, pues es demasiado cobarde.* 
La obra de Herrera sera siempre leida de cuantos se 
dediquetf & la cultura de los campos.® Luego que 
hubieres acabado este trabajo, te propondre^ otro, pero 
creo que te sera algo dificil. Le referii'6^® el como y el 
cuando de todo el suceso. To soy 61 que hare ver d todo 
el mundo que 61 es un menguado.^^ Si quieres ser lo 

?ue intentas, es menester que estudies aun mucho. 
.ograra^^ su intento, con tal que tenga las calidades que 

h 

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requiere nua tal colocacion. Mira bicn como obras. 
Por mas consejos que uno pida, siempre se conduce por 
BU propio dictimeu.^^ La semejanza" era demasiado 
per&cta, para que pudiese equivocarme, y desde luego 
reconoci en 61 la misma persona de aquel lance ;^ solo 
que habia mudado de nombre. Si este libro me inte- 
resase un poco, pasaria toda la noche en leer, pues no 
fengo^* ningun sueno. Si el hombre no fuese sino enten- 
dimiento puro, gustoso viviria en el campo, siendo com- 
paflero de las aves. Si fueran maduras estas peras, coge- 
ria algunas para Uevarlas d tu madre. j No seria mejor 
que obedecieses & tus padres v cumplieses con lo que te 
ordenaren? Si este pano^^ fuese mas fino, mandaria 
hacer una levita^ de 61. 

> "West Indies. * to go back. » short time. * bench. • campaign. 
* cowardly. ^ who devote themselves. * culture of the soU. * to propose. 
» I shall tell. >> a fool. " attain. ^* opinion. >« roNmblanee. <* event, 
le to feel sleepy. >v doth. ^ ooat. 



8d conjugation in EK. — ^Pabtib, to divide. 
Injmitive Mood. 
Present. Past. 

Partvr^ to divide. Edber partido^ to have 'divided 

Pabtioiplks. 
PartiendOy dividing, Partido^ divided. 

Indicative Mood. 
Pbesbnt. 



To parto, 
t'&povrtes^ 
hlpa/rte^ 


1 divide. nos. partimas^ 
thon dividest. vos. pa/rtis, 
he divides. ellospartenj 

Impeefeot. 


we divide, 
you divide, 
they divide. 


To pa/rtia^ 
eti pa/rtias^ 
cl partia^ 


I divided. nos, partiamoi^ 
thou dividedst. tos: partis, 
he divided. elloa partian, 

Past DEFnnTB. 


we divided, 
you divided, 
they divided. 


To parti, 
tiL partUte^ 
elpartid, 


I divided. no$, pa/rftmos, 
thou dividedst. f>os. pa/rt^steU, 
he divided. ellos partUron^ 


we divided. 
you divided, 
they divided. 




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FUTUBE. 

Fo pa^Url^ I shall div:de. nos. partirSmoSj we shall divide. 

tiipa^tird9^ thou shalt divide, vos. pa^tirHs^ yoa shall divide. 
ilpa/rtird^ he shall divide. ellos partirdn^ they shaU divide .^ 

Past Indefinitb. To hepartido^ I have divided. 

Plupkbfeot. To habia pa/rtido^ I had divided. 

Past Anterior. To hube partid4>^ I had divided. 

Future Anterior. To habri partido^ I shall have divided. 



Pa/rU t&^ 
porta il^ 



Imperative Mood. 



divide. 

let him divide. 



partamos^ 
partidy 
partan elloa, 



let US divide, 

divide ye. 

let them divide. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



To parta^ 
H partus^ 
Slparta, 

nosotroa partamos^ 
Tosotros partais^ 
ellos partan^ 



that I may divide, 
that thoa mayst divide, 
that he may divide, 
that we may divide, 
that you may divide, 
that they may divide. 



Imperfeot. 
To partiera^ pcurtieae^ 
t& partieras, partieses^ 
Slpa/rtiera, pa/rtiese^ 
noMtroB partiSramos^ partiisemos, 
toBotros partUratB^ partUseii^ 
ello8 partieran^ partteBerij 



that I might divide, 
that thou mightst divide, 
that he might divide, 
that we might divide, 
that yoa might divide, 
that they might divide. 



Conditional. 



To partiera^ partiria^ 

td partieras^ partirias^ 

il pctrtiera^ partiria, 

nosotroi pq/rtieramo», partiriamos^ 

tosotroB partiiraiB, partiriais^ 

tUoB partieran, partirian^ 

Future. 

10 portiere^ that 

t4 partiereB^ that 

Slpartiere^ that 

noBotroB pa/rtUremoB^ that 

^OBotroB partUreiB^ that 

elloB partieren, that 



I shoald divide, 
thou shouldst divide, 
he shoxdd divide, 
we should divide, 
you should divide, 
they should divide. 

I shall divide, 
thou shalt divide, 
he shall divide, 
we shall divide, 
you shall divide, 
they shall divide. 



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Past Indefinite. 
To haya pa/rtido^ that I oiay have divided. 

Pltjpebfeot. 
To hvhierti^ hubiese partido^ that I might have divided. 

FUTUKK PeBFEOT. 

To huhiere partido^ that I shall have divided. 

21. 
Observations on thb Regulab Verbs. 

Although the roots of the Regular Verbs are in gen- 
eral invariable, yet the sound of the language sometimes 
requires them slightly to change, so as to modify the 
otherwise harsh pronunciation. These verbs do not 
however cease to be regular verbs. 

1. Those verbs ending in car change the c into qu in 
the 1st person singular of the Fast l)efinite, in the 3d 
persons singular and plural of the Imperative, and in 
the Present of the Subjunctive ; as, 

toque^ that I may touch. 
toear^ to touch. toques^ that thoa majst touch. 

togtiS^ I touched. toque, that he may touch. 

toque Uy let him touch. toquemoi, that we may touch. 

toquen ellos, let them toneh. toqueU, that you may touch. 

toquen, that they may touch. 

2. Those ending in gar take a u after ff in the same 
tcsnses; as, 

pagar, to pay. pague el, let him pay. 

paguSy I paid. 

8. Those ending in cer change the c into z ; as. 



vema, 
veneer, to conquer. veneas, 

vemo, I conquer. venBO^ 

venza SI, let him conquer. vemamos, 

veman elloi, let them conquer. venaais, 

veman, 

4. Those ending in cir change the c into z ; as, 
resarcir^ to repair. resarzo, I repair. 



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6. Those ending in ger change the g into j before o 
and a; as, 

eseoger^ to choose. esccja, that I may choose. 

esecjjOy I choose. escojas, that thon mayst choose. 

6. Those ending in eer change the i into y ; as, 

ereer^ to helieve. ereyese^ that I might believe. 

creyd^ he believed. creyere^ that I shall believe. 

creyeron^ they believed. ereyeres^ that thou shalt believe. 

creyeray that I might believe. creyendo^ believing. 
creyeras, that thou mightst believe. 

Those ending in uir change likewise, in the same 
tenses, the i into y. 



III.— PASSIVE, REFLECTIVE, AND IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

22. 

1. The Passive Verb. 

The Passive Verb follows in the simple tenses the 
conjugation to which it belongs ; in the compound 
tenses it is conjugated with haber. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Ser amado^ to be loved. 

Past. Eaber sido amado^ ^ to have been loved. 

Participles. 
Siendo amado^ being loved. Amado^ Toved. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

Vo soy amado, 1 am loved. 

tu eres amado^ thou art loved. 

il 68 amudo, he is loved. 

nosotros somos amados, we are loved. 

vonotros 8018 amados, you are loved. 

ellos son amados^ they are loved. 



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Impkefeot. 

To era amado^ I was loved. 

t4, eras amadoj thou wast loved. 

SI era amado^ he was loved. 

no8otro8 eramos amadoSy we were loved. 

vosdtros erais amados, you were loved. 

ellos eran amados^ thej were loved. 

Past Indehnitb. To lie side amado, 1 have been loved. 

Pluperfect. To hahia sido amado^ I had been loved. 

Etc., etc., etc. 

2. The Ekfleotivb Verb. 

The compound tenses of the Reflective Verb are 
formed with haher. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Pkesent. Alegrarse^ to rejoice one's self. 

Past. Haberse alegrado^ to have rejoiced one's self. 

/ Pabtioiples. 

Afegr4<id4)8e, rejoicing one's self. Alegrddose^ rejoiced one's 8el£ 
HabUndose alegrado^ having rejoiced one's self. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

To me alegro (alegrome\ I rejoice myself. 

tu te alegras {aUgraete)^ thou rejoioest thyself. 

il se alegra (alegrase\ he rejoices himself. 

nosotroB nos alegramos^ we rejoice ourselves. 

voBotros 08 alegraie^ you rejoice yourselves. 

ello8 se alegran {aUgran8e\ they rejoice themselves. 

Imperfect. 

To me alegraba {alegrdlame\ I rejoiced myself. 

tu te ahgrahae^ thou rejoicedst thyself. 

kl se alegraba, he rejoiced himself. 

nosotros nos alegrdbamos, we rejoiced ourselves. 

tosoPros OS alegrdbais, you rejoiced yourselves. 

ellos se alegrai^an, they rejoiced themselves. 



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Past Indefinite.' 



To fne he alegrado, 

tu te has alegrado, 

el se ha alegrado^ 

nosotros nos hemoi aUgrado^ 

vosotros 08 hdbeis aUgradOy 

ellos se han alegrado. 



I have rejoiced myself, 
thou hast rejoiced thyself, 
he has rejoiced himself, 
we have rejoiced ourselves, 
you have rejoiced yourselves, 
they have rejoiced themselves. 



Yo me hahia alegrado^ 

tit te haMas aUgrado^ 

el se Tuibia alegrado^ 

nosotros nos Juibiamos alegrado^ 

f>osotros OS habiais alegrado^ 

ellos se habian alegrado^ 



Plupebfeot. 

I had rejoiced myselfc 
thou hadst rejoiced thyself, 
he had rejoiced himself. 
we had rejoiced ourselves, 
you had rejoiced yourselves, 
they had rejoiced themselves. 



Tlie other tenses are conjugated in tlie same manner. 

3. The Impersonal Verbs 

are only used in the Infinitive and in the 3d person sin- 
gular of the other tenses ; as, 

Ii^iNiTivB. Sd Pebson Sinoulab. 



aeontecer, 


to arrive ; 


acontece. 


esca/rcha/Ty 


to be frozen ; 


escarcha. 


granizar^ 


to hail; 


graniaa. 


helar^ 


to freeee ^ 


hiela. 


llover^ 


to rain; 


llu€ve. 


nevar, 


to snow; 


nieva. 


relampaguear^ 


to lighten ; 


relaTrtpagxtea. 


tronar^ 


to thunder; 


truena. 



IV.— THE lEREGULAR VERBS. 

23. 
1st conjugation in AR. 

1. The following verbs take an i before the radiciil 
letter e in the following tenses and persons : 

AcRECENTAR, to incTeose. 
Indicative Present. Subjunctive Pbesent. 

Acreciento^ I increase. Acreciente^ that I may increase. 

acreeientm^ thou increases!. acrecienteSy that thou mayst increase. 
acreeienta^ he increases. cuireeiente, that he may increase. 
acrecientan^ they increase. acrecienten^ that they may increase. 



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Imperative. 

Acrecienta tvL^ increase thou. 

Acreciente SI, let him increase. 

Aerecienten ellos^ let them increase. 

Tlie following verbs are conjugated in the same man- 
ner: 

Infinitive. 8d Pkkson Singular. 

acertar, 
adestrar^ 
alentar^ 
alentarse, 
antepenmr^ 
apacentar^ 
apretoTy 
arrendar^ 
asentar^ 
atentar^ 
aterra/r, 
atravesaVy 
aventa/Ty 
eaUntar^ 
cegar^ 
cerrar^ 
cimentar, 
eomemar^ 
deeentar^ 
desalentaVy 
desasosegar^ 
desatentar^ 
descancertar^ 
desenterrar, 
desherrar^ 
desmemhrar^ 
despedrar^ 
despUgoT, 
desterrar, 
emendar, 
empedraVy 
empezar, 
eneerrar. 
eneomendar^ 
encubertar, 
' ensan^rentar, 
enterrar, 
esea/rmentar, 
Mtereolar^ 
gobernar^ 
helar^ 



to hit; 


aeierta. 


to train ; 


adiestra. 


to encourage ; 


alienta. 


to take courage ; 


se alienta. 


to reflect; 


antepiensa. 


to graze; 


apacienta. 


to press ; 


aprieta. 


to rent; 


arrienda. 


to place; 


asienta. 


to attempt a crime ; 


atienta. 


to throw down ; 


atierra. 


to go through ; 


atraviesa. 


to fan; 


avienta. 


to warm ; 


calienta. 


to blind ; 


eiega. 


to shut ; 


cierra. 


to lay the foundation ; 


eimienta. 


to begin; 


comiema. 


to use for the first time ; 


decienta. 


to discourage ; 


desalienta. 


to disquiet ; 


desaaosiega. 


to perplex ; 


d^atienta. 


to confuse; 


deseaneierta. 


to excavate ; 


desentierra. 


to unchain ; 


deshierra. 


to separate ; 


desmiembra. 


to clear of stones ; 


deapiedra. 


to unfold ; 


despliega. 


to banish ; 


destierra. 


to correct; 


emienda. 


to pave ; 


empiedra. 


to begin ; 


empieza. 


to shut up ; 


eneievra. 


to charge ; 


encomienda. 


to cover; 


enctibierta. 


to stain with blood ; 


euMmgrienta 


to bury ; 


entierra. 


to punish; 


escarmienta. 


to manure ; 


estiereola. 


to govern ; 


gobiema. 


to freeze ; 


hiela. 



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herrar^ 
- intemar^ 
manifestar^ 
merendar, 
negar^ 
nevary 
penaar^ 
plegar, 
quebrar^ 
reeommd^r, 
refregar^ 
rega/r^ 
remendar^ 
renega/r^ 
req/uebrar^ 
reventar^ 
segar^ 
aembrar^ 

serrar^ 

sosegar^ 

soaegarse^ 

temblar^ 

tentar^ 

i/rapeMT^ 



to shoe ; 

to winter; 

to manifest ; 

to take a collation , 

to deny ; 

to snow ; 

to think ; 

to fold ; 

to break ; 

to recommend ; 

to rub ; 

to water; 

to mend ; 

to deny ; 

to make love ; 

to burst; 

to mow ; 

to sow ; 

to sit down ; 

to saw ; 

to calm ; 

to grow calm ; 

to tremble ; 

to try; 

to stumble ; 



hierra, 

irwiema. 

man'ifiesta, 

merienda, 

niega, 

nieva. 

piensa. 

piiega. 

guiebra. 

recomienda, 

re/riega, 

riega, 

remienda. 

reniega. 

requiebra, 

r&oienta, 

sUga. 

siembra. 

sesienta. 

sierra, 

sosiega. 

se sosiega. 

tiembla. 

tienta, 

iropieza. 



24. 
JEkarnples. 

Mira como este oficial alienta & sns soldados con sii 
ejomplo, y como se espone^ 61 mismo poiii6ndose d bu 
frente. Como que yo atravieso nna vez cada semana 
este bosque,^ me acontecio nn dia qne se me presento un 
080, mas yo sin atemorizarme,' como snelo siempre tener 
mi escopeta conmigo, le apunto, le disparo* nna bala, y 
cae mnerto d mis pies. Yo te digo que arriendes esa 
quinta, es nn bnen terreno, y teniendo candales suficientes, 
podrds cnltivar las tierras y beneficiarlas.* For mas 

f)rofiado* que nno est6, no nay cosa que pliegue mas 
dcilmente que su cardcter, cuando se trata de su propio 
interes. Si Vm. piiega su humor desde su juventud, 
Vm. ahorrara mucnos pesares^ d los otros y d si mismo. 
Confieso liaber hecho muchas faltas en mi vida, y me 
arrepiento y pido perdon, pues no he sabido lo que hacia. 
J A quo hora sueles merendar? Yo no meriendo casi 



50 



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nunca, pues como muy tarde, j luego despues tomo mi 
caf6. j JPues quien te lo hace ? Yo mismo ; pues hoinbre 
no hay cosa mas sencilla, hago liervii* el agaa y la vierto 
sobre el cafe, el que liabr6 pnesto en nn emondo, y ya 
estd concluido. xo no intento revelar aqui tantas 
grandes acciones snyas, como quehaprocurado ocultarlas : 
yo estimo y venero aun despues de sn muerte la humil- 
dad con que las oculta, las dejo bajo el velo que ha tirado 
para cubrirlas, y consiento en que scan perdidas para 
todos. Mira aquellas bombas, como se revientan en el 
' aire dntes de llegar sobre los edificios. Digale Vm. al 
iardinero que riegue los cuadros* de flores. Si tienes 
alguna cosa que remendar, yo conozco & un sastre que 
vive aqui cerca, que remienda muy bien j baratisimo. 
I Hombre de Dios ! tu tiemblas solo & la idea que van 
a azotarte;^® y qu6 harias si te azotasen? Yo no 
entiendo como td pliegas un drbol y no puedes plegar 
tu car4cter. 

» esponerse, to expose. » a forest. • to fear. * disparar, to fire off. 
» benenoiar, to improve. • obstinate. » sorrow, grief. • to cook. • bed. 
" to whip. 



26. 

Exercises. 



All these disagreeable incidents discouraged^ them to 
such a degree, that they will not continue their under- 
taking, fi you intend to go out, you must be well 
dressed^ for it freezes^ much and you might easily catch 
cold.* It does not snow at this moment, but it has 
snowed the whole night. Shut the door, for such a 
draught enters that 1 cannot bear it. He generally 
begins his work at eight o'clock, and has fiuisned it by 
five o'clock in the afternoon. He well deserves that you 
should thankfully press his hand, for he really wishes 
5'^ou well. Fold* this letter and take it immediately to 
the post-office, that it may be sent off to-day and I may 
have a reply by return of post. Fold up my cloak and 
hang it in the wardrobe.^ Awake I ^ for it is already 
daylight,® and you must work much to-day. The sun 
warms more in summer than in winter. 

1 desalentar. * bien arropado. * helar k ohiizos. * resfriar. • dobltf 
• gnardaropa. ' despertar. • es de dia. 

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26. 

2. The following verbs change the radical letter c 
Into ue in the tenses and persons indicated : 

Almorzab, to breakfast. 

Indicative Pbesent. 
AlmuerzOy I breakfast. 

ahntierzai^ thon breakfastest. 

almuerza^ he breakfasts. 

almuerzarty they breakfast. 

Subjunctive Present. 

Almuerce^ that I may breakfast, 

almuerees^ that thon mayst breakfast.. 

almuerce^ that he may breakfast. 

almttercen^ that they may breakfast. 

Imperative. 
Almuerza t4, breakfast thon. 

almuerce el^ let him breakfast. 

almtiereen ellos^ let them breakfast. 



Infinitive. 


8d Person Sinful &n 


Aeostarse^ 


to lay down ; 


aetU^tdse. 


agorar^ 


to foretell ; 


aguera. 


acordar, 


to consent ; 


aeuerda. 


acorda/rsey 


to remember ; 


CLCU^rdase, 


a/porUvr^ 


to land ; 


apuerta. 


a/po%twr^ 


to bet; 


apuesta. 


aprobar^ 


to approve ; 


aprueba. 


asoloTy 


to destroy ; 


ameld. 


atronar, 


to deafen ; 


atTuena, 


a/oergoma^y 


to shame ; 


a/oerguema. 


eolgar, 


to hang up; 


euelga. 


eomprohoTj 


to prove ; 


camprueba. 


eoncordar^ 


to agree ; 


eoncuerda. 


eonsolar^ 


to console; 


eonsuela. 


eontar^ 


to count; 


cuenta. 


eostar^ 


to cost ; 


euesta. 


demostrar^ 


to demonstrate ; 


demuestn'a. 


denaatar, 


to Insult ; 


denuesta. 


desaeordar^ 


to discord ; 


desacuerda. 


descolgar^ 


to take down ; 


descuelga. 


deseonsolar^ 


to grieve ; 


deseonsuela. 


descontar^ 


to discount; 


deseu&nta. 


despoblar, 


to depopulate ; 


despuebla. 


desvergomarse, 


to act Impudently 


; de8verguSma86 


eneontrar^ 


to encounter ; 


encuentra. 



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esforzar^ 


to exert ; 


esfuerza. 


forzar^ 


to force; 


fuerza. 


holga/r^ 


to rest; 


huelga. 


hospedaVy 


to receive; 


huespeda. 


innovaTy 


to innovate ; 


innueva. 


fnostroTy 


to show; 


muestra. 


poblar^ 


to people; 


puebla. 


probar, 


to prove ; 


prueba. 


reeordar^ 


torememher; 


reeuerda. 


reeordarse, 


to remember one's self; 


reeuSrdase. 


re/orzctr^ 


to strengthen ; 


re/tierza. 


renavo/Ty 


to renew; 


rentteoa. 


reprohar^ 


to reprove ; 


reprueba. 


resonaVy 


to re-echo ; 


resuena 


TodaVy 


to roll ; 


rueda. 


roga/Ty 

SOltOTy 


to pray; 

to set at liberty ; 


ruega. 


senary 


to sound ; 


mena. 


senary 


to dream ; 


suena. 


troeary 


to exchange; 


trueea. 


trana/Ty 


to thunder; 


truena. 


votary 


to fly; 


vuela. 


voleary 


to overset ; 


wieha 



27. 

The verbs errar^ dar^ and andar are conjugated aa 
follows : 



£rbar, 


to err. 


Indicative Pbesent. 
YerrOy I err. 
yerraSy thou errst. 
yerray he errs. 
yerrauy they err. 


Subjunctive Pbesent. 
Yerrey that I may err. 
yerreSy that thon mayst err 
yerrey that he may err. 
yerreuy that they may eiT. 



Impebatitb. 
Yerra, err thon. yerre SI, let him err. yerren elloSy let them err 



YeS^nfy 
tUdaSy 
el day 



28. 
Dab, to give. 

' Indicative Pbesent. 

I give. nosotros dameSy 

thon givest. vesotres daiSy 

he gives. ellos darty 



we give, 
you give, 
they give. 



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Past Definite. 

To di, I gave. nosotros Mtmb^ we gave. 

tu dUte^ thou gavest vosotros dUteis, jou gave. 

-il iidj he gave. ellos dUron^ they gave. 

Subjunctive Impebfeot. 

Yo ddera^ diese^ that I might give. 

tti di&ras, dieses^ that thou mightst give. 

H diera^ diese^ that he might give. 

no8otro9 dUra/mos^ dUsemos^ that we might give. 

vosotros dUrais^ dUseis^ that yon might give. 

ellos dieran, diesen^ that they might give. 

Subjunctive Futuke. 

To diere^ that I shall give. 

tf& dieres^ ' that thon shalt give. 

SI diere^ that he shall give. 

nosotros dUremos^ that we shall give. 

vosoPros diereis^ that you shall give. 

tUlos dieren^ that they shall give. 



Andar, to go. 

Past Definite. 

Yo anduvBy I went. nosotros anduvimos^ we went. 

td andumstey thon wentst. vosotros anduvisteis, yon went, 
H anduvoy he went.^ ellos anduviSron^ they went 

Subjunctive Imperfect. 

Yo dndv/tiera^ anduviese^ that I might go. 

tu anduvieraSy anduvieses^ that thon mightst go. 

el anduviera^ anduvtese^ that he might go. 

nosotros anduviSramos^ anduviSsemos^ that we might go. 

vosoPros anduvUrais^ anduvUseis^ that yon might go. 

ellos anduvieran^ anduvieseh^ that they might go. 

Subjunctive Future. 

Yo anduviere^ that I shall go. 

t4 anduvieres, that thon shalt go. 

il anduvterOy that he shall go. 

nosotros anduvierernos^ that we shall go. 

vosotros anduviereis^ that yon shall go. 

ellos anduvieren^ that they shall go. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( no ) 

30 
Esaamples. 

Acuerdate de lo que te digo, que el destino^ del hombro, 
luego que tiene la menor prosperidad,^ es qne le envidien 
7 le ataquen k porfia. Yo desapruebo enteramente sn 
modo de obrar;^ pues jporqu6 ir calumniando d oti-os 
que no le ban ofendido en nada? jPorqu6 cuelgas 
siempre tu capa tras la puerta, eabiendo que.impide que 
se abra? Almuerza, si quieres, que en el armario bay 
pan, vino, fiambre^ 7 queso. Si le encuentro en la calle, 
no le saludar6 siquiera, pues no lo merece. To no s6 do 
que proviene que no pueda dormir, pues ya bace mas de 
ocbo dias que no be pegado los ojos.* Quien dice que 
la caridad^ no sea una virtud, no puede sin embargo 
ni6no8 de confesar, que aboga por^ la causa de la 
bumanidad. j A que bora se acuestan en tu casa ? Yo 
suelo acostarme d las diez y duermo sin intemipeion 
basta las ocbo ; los demas se acuestan por lo comun d 
las once. Apuesto yo que, si fueras mas desgraciado, 
no estarias tan envidiado. Oada ave vuela segun la 
fuerza de sus alas, y es el Aguila la que vuela mas que 
todas. La poquisima moderacionque algimos bombres 
muestran en su prosperidad, les bace pasar por orguUosos 
6 insensatos.® La casualidad* babi6ndolos becbo nacer 
en el mismo mes, dmbos muri6ron casi d la misma edad. 
Me escuece^® tanto esta Uaga" que no me deja dormir ni 
un instante. i Quiere Vm. que cueia este conejo" en la 
cazuela de cobre^ que Vm. me dijo ? Por supuesto, y 
luego que est6 medio cocido le ecbards una punta de 
vinagre. } Oudnta ignorancia muestra aquel joven ! ya 
86 que conoce muy poco del mundo. La guerra des- 

I)uet)la los estados, asuela los campos y ensangrienta los 
ugares que son teatro de ella. Anduvimos mas deuna 
bora, sin poder acertar con la casa. Si anduvieras mas 
de prisa, podriamos aun alcanzar la ,ciudad dntes de la 
cerradura de las puertas. 

» destiny. • prosperity. " way of acting. * cold meat. • pegar lo» 
qjos, to close one's eyes. • charity. ' to pleiul, defend. " stupid. • casu- 
alty. »o escocer, to bum, to pain. " wound. »' the rabbit. " a coppei 
pan. ^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(Ill) 

81. 

Mseroises^ 

Lie down,^ for you appear to be veiy tired.^ Pray 
tell me where Mr. N. lives, I cannot remember the 
number of his house. What did your hat cost? I 
should like to buy one like it if it would not cost too 
much. I breakfast to-day at my imcle's. I take a long 
walk every day before breakfast. A great part of that 
beautiful country^ was destroyed* by the cruel enemy. 
He proved* his right by incontestable® facts, and the case^ 
has therefore been decided in his favor. This copy agrees 
entirely with the original. Remember your promise, and 
fulfil it like a man of honor, whose word is sacred. 

> acu^state. > cansado. > oomarca. * asolado. * comprobado. * irro- 
fragable. ' cauBa. 



32. 

2d conjugation in ER. 

All Terbs ending in aoer, ecer^ and ocer — as nacer^ em- 
pohrecer^ conocer — take a b before the radical o in the 1st 
person ^in^ar of the Indicative Present, in all persons 
of the Subjunctive Present, and in the 3d person singu- 
lar and plural of the Imperative. 

Nacer, to be born. 
Indicative Pbksent. Naaco, I am bom. 

Imperative. 

Nixeea SI, let him be born. 

nazcan ellos, let them be born. 

Subjunctive Pbesent. 

Naaca^ that I may be bom. 

ncuscas, that thou mayst be bora. 

ncuscay that he may be born. 

mizcdmos, that we may be bom. 

naacdis, that yon may be born. 

naacan, that they may be bornr. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(112) 



33. 
Haceb, to do. 

Tliis verb is an exception to the above rule, as well an 
its derivatives, such as deshacerj rehacer. Satis/aeer 
follows the conjuffation of hacerj leaving the Latin satis 
iinchanfi:ed, but Sie h in hacer is changed into /l It 
only diners in the 2d person sin^lar of the Imperative, 
where it makes satisfaz and satisface. 



PABTicnPLB Past. 
Indioativb Pbesent. 



hieOy 



EarS, 
hard^ 



Haga^ 
hagas^ 
haga^ 



ffdria^ 
harias^ 
Ttaria^ 



Hiciere^ 
\ieierey 



I did. 
thou didst, 
he did. 



Becho^ 
Eago^ 

Past Definite. 

hidsteis, 
hicierouy 



done. 
I do. 



Indicative Future. 



I shall do. 
thou shalt do. 
he shall do. 



harimos^ 
ha/rdn, 



Subjunctive Puesent. 
that I may do. hagdmos^ 

that thou mayst do. hctgdis^ 

that he may^o. Jiagan^ 



we did. 
you did. 
they did. 



we shall do. 
you shall do. 
they shall do. 



that we may do. 
that you may do. 
that they may do. 



Subjunctive 
EieierOy hieieae, 
hieieras, hiciesea^ 
hidera^ hieiese^ 
hicUramoSy hicUsemos^ 
hieUraia^ hidSseia, 
hideran^ hicieaen^ 



Imperfect. 

that I might do. 
that thou mightst do. 
that he might do. 
that we might do. 
that you might do. 
that they might do. 



Conditional. 



I should do. 
thou shouldst do. 
he should do. 



hariamoa, we should do. 
MriaUy you should do. 
harian^ ' they should do. 



Subjunctive Future. 

that I shall do. hieUremoa, that we shall do. 

that thou shtilt do. hiciSreia^ that you shall do. 

that he shall do. hicieren^ Uiat they shall do. 



Imperative. 



Eaz tu^ 
haga el^ 



do thou, 
let him do. 



Tiagdmoa^ 
hiigan elloa^ 



let us do. 
let them do. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



( 113 )' 

34. 

AscKNDKB, to ascend. 

Tliis verb, as well as the foUowing, takes an i before 
ltd radical e in the same tenses and persons as the verb 
acrecentar. 



atender^ 


to attend; 


atiende. 


contender^ 


to contend ; 


contiende. 


defend^r^ 


to defend ; 


defiende. 


desatender, 


to disregard; 


desatiende. 


encender^ 


to kindle ; 


enciende. 


entender, 


to understand ; 


entiende. 


estender^ 


to spread ; 


estiende. 


heder^ 


to stink; 


hiede. 


hmdcTy 


to split; 


hiende. 


perder. 


to lose; 


pierde. 


tender^ 


to stretch ; 


tiende. 


wrter^ 


to spill ; 

35. 
Absolvkr, to acquit. 


vUrte. 



This verb and the following change their radical o 
into ue in the same tenses and persons as the verb 
almorzar. 



eaeer, 


to cook ; 


eueee. 


eandoleVy 


to condole ; 


eonduele. 


demoler^ 


to demolish ; 


demvele. 


devoher, 


to return ; 


devuehe. 


disolver^ 


to dissolve; 


disuehe. 


doUr, 


to pain ; 


duele. 


llover^ 


to rain ; 


llueve. 


moler, 


to grind ; 


muele. 


mordeVy 


to bite; 


muerde. 


mover, 


to move ; 


mueve. 


oler. 


to smell ; 


hueU, 


poder. 


to be able ; 


puede. 


promover, 


to promote ; 


prcmueDC 


remover, 


to remove; 


remueve. 


8oler, 


to accustom ; 


suele. 


toreer, 


to turn; 


tueree. 


volver. 


to return ; 


vueke. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



( Hi ) 

86. 

Caeb, to faU, 

This verb and its deriratives, decaer^ recaer^ are irreg 
ular in the 1st person singular of the Indicative Present, 
in the 3d person singular and plural of the Imperative, 
and in all persons of the Subjunctive Present. 

Indicative Pbesent. Caigo^ I fall. 
Impebatiye. 
Caiga il, let him fall. eaigan ellos^ let them fall. 

SuBjuNOTiTB Pbesent. 

Caigay that I maj fall. caigamos^ that we maj fall. 

eaigas^ that thou mayst fall. eaigaisj thrt you may fall. 

caiga, that he may fall. eaigan^ that they may fall 

37. 

Caber, to have room. 

Indicative Pbesent. Quepo^ I have room. 

Past Definite. 



Cupe, 


I had room. 


eupimos, we had room. 


eupiite^ 


thou hadst room. eupisteis, you had room. 


eupo. 


he had room. 


cupieron, they had room 




Indicative Futube. 




Oahri, 


I shall have room. 




edbrdi^ 


then shalt have room. 




cdbrd, 


he shall have room. 




eabremos. 


we shall have room. 




cabreis. 


you shall have room* 




edbrdn^ 


they shall have room. 
Impebativb. 




Quepa ely 


let him have room. 




qiLepaino8y 


let us have room. 




quepan^ 


let them have room. 




Subjunctive Pbesent. 




Quepa^ 


that I may have room. 




quepas^ 


that thou mayst have room. 




quepa, 


that he may have room. 




quepamcSy 


that we may have room. 




quepaU, 


that you may have room. 




qvepan. 


that they -may have room. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(115) 



Subjunctive Imperfkot. 



Oupiera, cupieee^ 
eupiercu, eupieses^ 
eupiera, cupieae, 
eupUramos^ cupiesemos^ 
eupUrai8, cupieseis, 
enpieran^ eupiesen^ 



that I might have room, 
that thou mightst have room, 
that he might have room, 
that we might have room, 
that yon might have room, 
that they might have room. 



Conditional. 

Cabria^ I should have room. 

cabrias^ thou shonldst have room. 

cahria^ he should have room. 

eabriamo8^ we should have room. 

eahriais^ you should have room. 

cabrian^ they should have room. 

Subjunctive Futfbe. 

Cupiere^ that I snail have room. 

eupieres, that thou shalt have room. 

eupierey that he shall have room. 

eupUremos, that we shall have i:oom. 

eupiereiSy that you shall have room. 

eupieren^ that tliey shall have room. 



38. 
PoNEB, to lay^ to set. 



PliUtOy 

Pu$e, 

pusiste^ 

puso^ 



Pondre^ 
pondrdSy 
pondrdj 



Pan iti, 
ponga el^ 



Pabticiplb Past. 
laid. 



Indicative Pbessnt. 



FongOy 

Past Definite. 
I laid. ^ ptuimos, 

thou laidst. pusiateisj 

he laid. pusieton. 

Indicative Futtjee. 

I shall lay. ptmdrimos^ 

thou shalt lay. pondHiSy 

he shall lay. pondrdn. 

Imperative. 



lay thou, 
let him lay. 



pongamos^ 
pang an ellos^ 



Hay. 



we laid, 
you laid, 
they laid. 



we shall lay. 
you shall lay, 
they shall lay. 



let us lay. 
let them lay. 



Subjunctive Pbesent. 
PongOy that I may lay. pongdmos^ that we may lay. 

pongas^ that thou raayst lay. pongdis^ that you may lay. 
ponga^ tliat he may lay. pongan, that they may lay. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



(116) 



Subjunctive 

Pusiera^ pusieae^ 
pusieras, ptmeses^ 
pimera^ puaiese^ 
pusiSramos^ ptuiesemos^ 
pasUraiSy pusUseu^ 
pimeran^ pudesen^ 



Impkepkot. 
that I might lay. 
that thon mightst lay* 
that he might lay. 
that we might lay. 
tliat you might lay. 
that they might lay. 



Subjunctive Future. 



Pusiere^ 

pimeres^ 

pusiere, 

puderemos^ 

pusUreis^ 

ptisieren, 



that I shall lay. 
that thon shalt lay. 
that he shall lay. 
that we shall lay. 
that you shall lay. 
that they shall lay. 



39. 
QuEBBRy to desire^ to wiU. 



we desire, 
you desire, 
they desire. 



we desired, 
you desired, 
they desired. 



Indicative Pbksent. 

Quiero^ I desire. queremos^ 

quieres, thou desirest. quereU^ 

quiere, he desires. quieren, 

Past Definite. 
Quise^ I desired. quidmos^ 

quisistey thou desiredst. quisUteis^ 

quUo, he desired. quuHron^ 

Indicative Futube. 

Qtwrr^, I shall desire. querrimoSy we shall desire. 

qiterrdSy thou shalt desire. querrkU^ you shall desire. 

qtierrdf he shall desire. qtien'dn^ they shall desira 

Imperative. 

Quiere td^ desire thou. 

quiera el^ let him desire. 

quieran ellos^ let them desire. 

Subjunctive Present. 

Quiera^ that I may desire. 

quierasy that thou mayst desire. 

quiera^ that he may desire. 

querdmc9^ that we may desire. 

querdisy that you may desire. 

quieran^ that they may desire* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(117) 



Subjunctive 
QuUiera^ quisiesey 
guUieras, quisieseSj 
quuierOy qumese^ 
quisUramoB^ qumesemos^ 
quisUrais^ quisiiseiSy 
quuieran^ qumeseriy 



Impebfeot. 
that I might desire, 
th^t thou mightst desira.' 
that he might desire, 
that we might desire, 
that yon might desire, 
that they might desire. 



Subjunctive Futube. 



Quisiere^ 

quuiereSy 

qumere, 

quisieremoSy 

quUUreiSy 

quisieren^ 



that I shall desire, 
that thou shalt desire, 
that he shall desire, 
that we shall desire, 
that yon shall desire, 
that they shall desire. 



40. 

Saber, to know. 

Indicative Pbesent. Se, I know. 





Past Definite. 




Supe, 

supiste 

supo, 


I knew. supimoB, 
thou knewest. aupisteis^ 
he knew. supUroUj 

Indicative Futube. 


we knew, 
you knew, 
they knew. 


SahrS, 
sahrdSy 
iobrd, 


I shall know. sahrSmos^ 
thou shalt know. aabreis^ 
he shall know. sdbrdn, 

Impebativb. 

Sepa Sl^ let him know. 
sepamoSy let ns know. 
sepauy let them know. 


we shall know, 
you shall know, 
they shall know 



Subjunctive Pbesent. 
Sepa^ that I may know. tepdrnoiy that we may know. 

upasy that thou mayst know. sepdiSy that you may know. 
iepay that he may know. sepan, that they may know. 



Subjunctive 
Supiera^ supiese^ 
tupieraSy Bupieses, 
supieray mpieMy 
ntpieramoSy supiSsemoSy 
wpUraiSy supUseiSy 
fupierauy supiesen^ 



Impebfect. 

that I might know, 
that thou mightst know, 
that he might know, 
that we might know, 
that you might know, 
that they might know. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(118) 



SUBJUNOTIVE FUTUEK. 



Supiere^ 

supieres^ 

mpiere, 

iupUremos^ 

supiereia, 

mpiereriy 



that I shall know, 
that thou shalt know, 
that he shall know, 
that we shall know, 
that you shall know, 
that they shall know. 



41. 
Traeb, to bring. 



Paetioiplb Peksent. 
Trayendo^ hringing. 



Indicative Pebsbnt. 
Traigo^ I bring. 



Past Definite. 



Traje, 
trajiste^ 



I brought, 
thou broughtst. 
he brought. 



trajUteu^ 
trajiron^ 



we brought, 
you brought, 
they brought 



Impeeative. 



JFraiga h\ 
traigamas^ 
traigan elhs^ 



let him bring, 
let us bring, 
let them bring. 



T^aiga^ 
traigaSy 
traigoy 



that I may bring, 
that thou mayst bring, 
that he may bring. 



Subjunctive Present. 

traigdmos^ that we may bring. 

traigdiSy that you may bring. 

traigan^ that they may bring 



Subjunctive Impebfect. 



Trajera^ trajese^ 
trc^eras^ trajeses^ 
trajera, trajese^ 
trajeramos^ trc0esemo»^ 
trajerais^ trajeseis^ 
trajeran^ trajesen, 



that I might bring, 
that thou mightst bring, 
that he might bring, 
that we might bring. 
. that you might bring, 
that they niight bring 



Subjunctive FuTxnEtE. 



Trc^erey 
tra^eres^ 
trajere^ 

troQereis^ 



that I shall bring, 
that thou shalt bring, 
that he shall bring, 
that we shall bring, 
that you shall bring, 
that they shall bring. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(119) 

42. 

Valke, to be worth. 

Indicative Peesent. Valgo, I am worth. 

Indicative Futubb. 

Valdrij I shall be worth. valdrimos^ we shall be worth. 

mldrds^ thou shalt be worth. valdreis, you shall be worth. 

valdrdj he shall be worth, valdrdn^ they shall be worth. 



Valga, 
valgamos^ 



Imperative. 

let him be worth, 
let us be worth, 
let them be worth. 



Subjunctive Present. 

VaJga^ that I may be worth. 

talga8^ that thou mayst be w^orth. 

valga^ that he may be worth. 

valgdmjs^ that we may be worth. 

loalgdiSy that you may be worth. 

valgany that they may be worth. 

Conditional. 

Valdria^ I should be worth. 

taldriaSj thou shouldst be worth. 

loaldria^ he should be worth. 

valdriamo8y we should be worth. 

loatdriaiSy you should be worth. 

vMrian^ they should be worth. 



43. 
3d conjugation in IE. 

The verbs ending in ucir^ as luciry conducir^ have the 
name irregularities as those of the second conjugation 
ending in ecer ; thus, 



encareeer 
lti<yir 



makes 



encarezco, 
luzco. 



Those ending in duoir^ as deduci/r^ mducir^ 1/raducii\ 
have the irregularities indicated in the verb conduovr. 

CoNDuciB, to conduct, 

Tjlbt Definite. 

Condt0Sj 1 conducted. condujimos, we conducted. 

eondujute^ thou conductedst. condujisteis, you conducted. 

*a, he conducted. condvjSron^ they conducted. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



( 120 ) 

SUBJUNOTIVE ImPSBFEOT. 

Conduf&ra^ e&ndvjese^ that I might conduct 

etrndujeras^ condujeses^ that thon mightst conduct 

eandujerck^ eondujese^ that he might conduct 

eondujSramoi^ eondtijesemoSy that we might conduct. 

eondujeraUy eondujSseis^ that you might conduct. 

eondujeran^ eondujesen^ that they might conduct 

Subjunctive Futuke. 

Condujere^ that I shall conduct. 

' eondujeres^ that thou shalt conduct 

eondfijere, that he shall conduct 

candt^eremos^ that we shall conduct. 

eandiijereif^ that you shall conduct. 

eondvjeren^ that they shall conduct 



44. 
Sbntib, to fed. 

Indioatiye Pbesent. 

Siento^ I feel. sentimos^ we feel 

sientes^ thou feelest sentiSy yon feeL 

HenUy he feels. aienterij they feel. 

Past Definite. 

SintiSy he felt sintiero?*^ they felt 

Impeiiatiye. 

Sientej feel thou. sintamoi^ let us feel. 

let him feel. aientan^ let them feel. 

Subjunctive Pbesent. 

Sienta^ that I may feel. 

sientasy that thou mayst feel. 

iienta, that he may feel. 

Hntdmo8y that we may feel. 

sintdiSy that you may feel. 

sientan^ that they may feeL 

Subjunctive Impbefbct. 

Sintiera^ Bintiese^ that I might feel. 

iintienUy nntieses, that thou mightst feeL 

nntieray Hntiese^ that he might feel. 

HntUramoSy sintiisemos^ that we might feel. 

nntUraiSy sintieseisj that you might feel. 

iintieran^ sintiesen^ that they might feeL 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



( 121 ) 

SUBJUNOTIVB FUTUBE. 

Sintierey that I shall feel. 

HntiereSy that thou shalt feeL. 

sintiere^ that he shall feel. 

9intieremo8y that we shall feel. 

sintiereiSy that you shall feel. 

aintieren^ that they shall feel. 

45. 
DoBMiB, to sleep. 

This verb changes the radical o sometimes into m, 
sometimes into u ; as, 

Indicative Present. 



DtiermOy 
duermesy 
diiermey 


I sleep. dormimosy we sleep, 
thou sleepest dormiSy you sleep, 
he sleeps. duermen^ they sleep. 




Past Definite. 


iMirmU, 


he slept. durmiSroTif ' they slept 




Imperative. 


Duerme, 
iuermoj 


sleep thou. durmamoSj let us sleep, 
let him sleep. duerman^ let them sleep, 




Subjunctive Present. 




Duermay that I may sleep. 
duermas, that thou mayst sleep. . 
duerma^ that he may sleep. 
durmdmosy that we may sleep. 
durmdU, that you may sleep. 
duerman^ that they may sleep. 




Subjunctive Imperfect. 


Purmiera^ dunniese^ that I might sleep. 
dv/rtniera8y durmieseSj that thou mightst deep. 
durmiera^ durmiese^ that he might sleep. 
dvrmiercmoSy durmiisemos, that we might sleep. 
dtmniSraiSy durmiSseiSy that you might sleep. 
durmieran^ durmiesen^ that they m ght sleep. 




Subjunctive Future. 




Durmiere^ that I shall sleep. 
durmieresy that thou shalt sleep. 
durmiere, that he shall sleep. 
durmUremos^ that we shall sleep. 
durmUreia^ that you shall sleep. 
durmieren^ that they shall sleep. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(122) 

46. 
Pedis, to solicit. 

This verb changes its radical e into i in the following 
tenses: 

PABTion^LE FsESENT. FidiendOy soliciting. 
Indicative Pbesknt. 



Fido, 


I solicit. pedimoSy we solicit, 
thon solicitest. pedis^ yon solicit 
he Solicits. pidm^ they solicit. 




Past Definitb. 


FidU 


, he solicited. pidih'on^ they soliolted. 




Imfebative. 


Fide, 
fdda. 


solicit thon. pidamagj let ns solicit, 
let him solicit ptdan^ let them solicit 




. Subjunctive Peesbnt. 




FidOy that I may solicit 
pidaSy that thon mayst solicit. 
pida^ that he may solicit. 
piddmo8y that we may solicit. 
piddiSy that yon may solicit 
pidan, that they may solicit. 




Subjunctive Impebfeot. 




Fidiera^ ptdiese^ that I might solicit. 
pidi&raSy pidieses^ that thon mightst solioit 
pidiera^ pidiese^ that he might solicit 
pidiSramo8y pidiesemos, that we might. solicit. 
pidih'ais^ pidOseis^ that yon might solicit. 
pidierauy pidiesen^ that they m ght solicit 




Subjunctive Futuke. 




Fidiere, that I shall solicit 
pidieret^ that thon shalt solicit 
pidiere^ that he shall solicit. 
pidieremoSj that we shall solicit. 
pidiereiSy that you shall solicit 
pidiereUy that they shall solicit 



47. 

Venib, to come, 

Pabticiple Pbesent. ViniendOy coming. 



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Vengo^ 



Vendri^ 
cendrds^ 
vendrdf 



Yen, 
tenga, 

vengas^ 
venga, 



Indicative Pbesent. 
I come. venimos^ 

thou comest. venisj 

he comes. tien&n^ 

Past Definite. 
I came, 
thou earnest, 
be came. 



we come, 
you come, 
they come. 



Viniere, 
vinieres^ 
tiniere. 



vinUteis^ 

Indioatiye Futttee. 
I shall come. vendrimoSy 

thoa shalt come. vendriis^ 
he shall come. vendrdn^ 

Imperative. 

come thou. vengamoSj 

let him come. vengan^ 

Subjunctive Present. 
that I may come. vengdmos^ 

that thou mayst come, vengdis^ 
that he may come. vengan^ 

Subjunctive Imperfect, 
Vinwra, viniese, 
vinieraSy vinieses^ 
mniera^ viniese, 
vinUramaa^ viniSsemos^ 
vifi'UraiSy tinieseU^ 
mnieran^ viniesen^ 

SuBJUNOTWE Future. 

that I shall come. vinUremoSj that we shall come, 

that thou shalt come, loiniireis, that yon shall come, 
that he shall come. vinUren^ that they shall come. 



we came, 
yon came, 
they came. 

we shall come, 
yon shall come, 
they shall come. 

let ns come, 
let them come. 



that we may come, 
that you may come, 
that they may come. 



that I might come, 
that thou mightst come, 
that he might come, 
that we might come, 
that you might come, 
that they might come. 



\9ga, 
tisgasy 
i»ga. 



48. 

AsiB, to seize. 

Indicative Present. Asgo^ I seize. 

Subjunctive Present. 
that I may seize. cugdmos^ that we may seizej> 



that thou mayst seize. asgdU, 
that he may seize. asgauy 

Imperative. 
Asga^ let him seize, asgamoi^ let us seize. 



that yoa may seize, 
that they may seize. 



asgan^ let them seiza 

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. ( 12* ) 

4:9. 

Dkcib, to say, 
Paetioiples. 
Dieiendo^ saying. Dieho^ said. 

Indicative Pkesent. 

DigOy I say. decimos, we say. 

diees^ thou sayest. decU^ you say. 

dice^ he says. dieeit, they say* 

Past Definite. 

Dije^ I said. dijimos^ we said. 

dijiste^ thou saidst. dijUteis^ you said. 

({i;o, he said. dijeron^ they said. 

Indicative Futuee. 

IHrSj I shall say. dirimas^ we shall say. 

dirds^ thou sbalt say. <2«r^ you shall say. 

dird, he shall say. dirdn^ they shall say« 

Impekative. 
Diy say thou. digamos^ let us say. 

(2i^6^, let him say. digaUy let them say. 

Subjunctive Peesent. 

Biga^ that I may say. digamoi, that we may say. 

digas, that thou mayst say. digaiSy that you may say. 

dif^a^ that he may say. digarij that they may say 

Subjunctive Impeefect. 

ZHjera^ dijese^ that I might say. 

dijerasy dijeseSj that thou mightst say. 

dijera^ dijeae^ that he might say. 

dijjsTomoB^ dijkemoSy that we might say. 

dijirais, dijeseia^ that you might say. 

dijeran^ dijesen^ that they might say. 

Subjunctive Futuee. 

jyijere^ that I shall say. dijJ^revnos^ that we shall say. 

J. that thou shalt say. dijireis^ that you shall say. 



dtjere, that he shall say. dijeren^ that they shall say 

50. 

6sNDECIf^ to bless, 

Paeticiple Past. Bendeaido^ blessed. 

9 

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BendeeirS^ 
bendecirds^ 
hendecirdj 



Indioatitb Futukk. 

I shall bless. hendeeirimoe^ we shall biftss. 

thou shalt bless. bendecireUy you shall ^less. 

he shall bless. hendecirdriy they shall riess. 



Conditional. 



BendeeiriOy 

hendecirias^ 

hendeeiria^ 

hendeciriamoSy 

hendedriais^ 

hendeeiriany 



I slionld bless, 
thou shouldst bless, 
he should bless, 
we should bless, 
you should bless, 
they should bless. 



Impbbativb. Bendice^ bless. 



51. 





OiB, to hear. 






Pabtioiple Pebsbnt. Oyendo^ 


hearing. 




Indioativb Pkesknt. 




Oigo, 

oyes, 

oye, 


I hear, oimos^ 
thou hearest. oU^ 
he hears. oyen^ 

Past Dbfinitb. 


we hear, 
you hear, 
they hear. 


OyS, 


he heard. oyiroUy 
Impbbativb. 


they heard. 


Oye, 
oiga, 


hear thou. oigamos, 
let him hear. oigan^ 

SUBJITNOTIVE PbBSENT. 


let tis hear, 
let them hear 


Oiga, 
oigoB^ 
oiga. 


that I may hear. oigdmos, 
that thou mayst hear. oigdis^ 
that he may hear. oigariy 


that we may hear, 
that you may hear 
that they may hear. 




Subjunctive Impebfeot 


'. 




Oyera^ oyese^ that I might hear. 
oyeraSy oyeses^ that thou mightst hear. 
oyeray oyese^ that he might hear. 
oyeramos^ oyesemos^ that we might hear. 
oyeraia, oyeseis, that you might hear. 
oyeran^ oyesen^ that they might hear. 




Subjunctive Futuke. 




III 


that I shall hear. oyeremos^ 
that thou shalt hear. oyereis^ 
that he shall hear. oyeren^ 


that we shall hear, 
that you shall hear, 
that they shall hear. 



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( 126 ) 

52. 

Salir, to go oiU, 

This verb takes a g after its radical Z in the same 
persons as the verb air; besides this irregularity, it 
changes the i into d in the Future of the Indicative, 
and in the 2d Imperfect of the Subjunctive; and 
it loses its final s in the 2d person of the Imperative 
singular. 

Indicative Pbesbnt. Salgo^ I go out 



SaldrS^ 
saldrdsy 
salctrd, 



Sal, 
saigas, 



SaldriOy 
aaldrias, 
saldria. 



Indicative Futubb. 



I shall go out 
thou shalt go out. 
he shall go out 



saldremos, 

saldreis, 

saldrdn, 



Imperative. 



go thou out 
let him go out. 



salgdmoSj 
salgan, 



Conditional. 

I should go out saldriamos, 

thou shouldst go out. saldriais, 
he should go out. saldrtan. 



we shall go out. 
you shall go out. 
they shall go out. 



let us go out. 
let them go out. 



we should go out. 
you should go out 
they should go < 



1 go out 



53. 

iRy to go. 
Participles. Yeiido, going. Ido, gone. 



Indicative Present. 



voy, 

va, 


I go. vamos, 
thou goest vaU, 
he goes. van, 


III 


Jba, 
ibas, 
iba^ 


I went ibamos, 
thou wentst, ihaU, 
he .went. iban, 

Past Definite. 


we went 
you went, 
they went 


Fui, 


I went /uimos, 
thou wentst fuUteis, 
he w«nt fueron, 


we went, 
you went, 
they went 



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Indicative Futuee. 









Vaya^ 
vayas^ 
vaya, 






I shall go. 
thou sbalt go 
he shall go. 



iriis^ 
irdn, 



Imperative. 



vayamos^ 
go thou. id, 

let him go. vayan. 

Subjunctive Present. 

that I may go. vaydmos^ 

that thou mayst go. vaydU, 

that he may go. vayan^ 

Subjunctive Imperfect. 



we shall go. 
you shall go. 
they shall go. 



let us go. 

go ye. 

let them go. 



that we may go. 
that you may go. 
that they may go. 



fakramos, fuh&im%, 
/uirais^fti^eseis^ 
fueran, fuesen^ 



that I might go. 
that thou mightst go. 
that he might go. 
that we might go. 
that you might go. 
that they might go. 



Subjunctive Future. 



that I shall go. 
that thou shalt go. 
that he shall go. 



fuireis^ 
fueren, 



that we shall go. 
that you shall go. 
that they shall go. 



54:. 





Vocabulary. 


permaneeido^ 


remained. 


se sostuvo, 


eoeh&ra. 


coach-house. 




cdntoTOy 


the pitcher. 


JmenoB disposir 


no cahia yo en 


I did not know 


Clones^ 


mi de gozo^ 


what to do for 


aduladores^ 




joy- 


Kalian su euen- 


que me cupie- 


which came to 


ta. 


ron^ 


my part. 


efnfermos ima- 


fa/rdo. 


the parcel. 


ginarioSj 


iguala. 


equal. 


al alcance, 


tilla. 


village. 


exentode^ 


losmasminimos the minutest se- 


huena latini- 


secretoB, 


crets. 


dad. 


la mayor de las the greatest 


sagaz^ 


forlAinas^ 


luck. 





sustained itself. 
I resolve, 
good disposi- 
tions, 
flatterers, 
get their profits. 

those who fancy 
themselves ill. 

within reach. 

free of. 

good Latin writ- 
ing. 

sagacious. 



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(128) 

EcampUs. 

Estando mi madre en Yiena, cayo enferma y, 4 Dio6 
gracias, que pudo aun volver aei, pues creo que si hubiera 
permanecido mas tiempo en aquella ciudad, habria 
muerto. No caiffas, que romperas el edntaro. Ap6nas 
rocibio mi madre la noticia de la muerte de su hermaria, 
que estaba en Berlin, cuando cayo desmayada en el 
Buelo, y creimos que iba a espirar, pues se estuvo mas de 
dos horas sin que pudieramos lograr que volviese en si. 
I Qu6 se ha denaeer, hombre ? pues que no puede caber 
el coche en la cochera, preciso sera dejarle fuera. No 
cabia yo en mi de gozo al verme en posesion de tantas 
riquezas que me cupieron de la herencia de mi tio. 
V Orees que este fardo pasara por aquella puerta ? 
X o no lo creo ; si quieres que pase sera menester desha- 
cerle. No s6 ya cuanto cupo a mi amigo de la herencia 
de su abuelo que murio el aflo pasado. Creo, si no me 
engaiia la memoria, 61 mismo me dijo haberle cabido 
unos diez mil duros, y se tambien que puso unos seis mil 
en el banco. Hagame Vm. el favor de decirme cuantas 
leguas hay de aqui k la primera villa. Creo que habrd 
Unas cinco leguas, que Vm. podrd andarlas comodamente 
en cuatro horas. El sabio tiene por oficio mandar, no 
obedecer k los ignorantes, y la ciencia, sino supera, a lo • 
m6nos iguala k los que la naturaleza hizo superiores. 
Entonces se acaba la vida, cuando se acaban fas cosas 
que la hacen estimar. El hombre que teme a Dios, 
quien conoce los mas minimos secretos de nuestros cora- 
zones, no hace nada que sea contra la virtud. Cualquiera 
cosa que hagdmos para obligar k un ingrato, nunca la 
hallard digna de su reconocimiento. Roma', cerca de su 
decadencia, se sostuvo durante sus desgracias por la 
constancia y la sabiduria de sus senadores. Los ojos no 
v€tn nada, cuando el espiritu 6 el corazon no ve con ellos. 
llaz bien ; tendrds envidiosos ; haz mejor, serAs vengado. 
El mayor de los infortunios es, cuando el hombre puede 
poco y quiere mucho, y la mayor de las venturas es, 
cuando quiere poco y puede mucho. El contento vendrd 
si supieres esperar, y el arrepentimiento, si te apresurares. 
Afe propongo adornar el espiritu de aauel joven que 

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(129) 

tienfc tan buenas disposiciones. Mi padre suele decir que 
los aduladores hallan su cuenta con los grandes, asi 
como suelen hallarla los medicos con los enfermos imagi- 
narios : estos, dice 61, pagan por los dolores que no tienen, 
y aquellos por las virtudes que debieran tener. No 
podnamos menos de sentir por las prodiicciones del genio 
ujia vivisima admiracion que se asemeja d veces & la 
sorpresa. Mas valdria que Vm. escogiese j)or amigo d 
unhombre que pndiese consolarle en la afliccion, y en la 
tX5asion darle buenos consejos y buenos ejemplos. Pro- 
pongase Vm. ensefiar 6, esos nifios cosas que esten al 
alcance de su entendimiento, y entonces Vm. verd como 
haran progresos. El mayor defecto que un hombre 
pueda tener es, creerse exento de el. Los jovenes creen 
que todos los miran, y los viejos que nadie los ve. No 
nay sine los que no temen la muerte, que sepan gozar 
de la vida. ; Como 1 Vm. muere inocente 1 decia uno 
de los discipulos de Socrates a aquel fil6sofo. j Quisiera 
Vm. pues, contesto Socrates, que muriese culpable? El 
genio de Homero hizo etemo el cardcter de la lengua 
griega, y la elocuencia de Ciceron dej6 un modelo de la 
buena latinidad. Si el hombre quisiere ser solamente 
bueno, dard ocasion d que fdcilmente le engafien : sea el 
sagaz, 1q que basta para no ser engafiado; pero si su 
sa^acidad mere excesiva, tambien querrd tal yez engafiar 
dfos otros. 

56. 
Of thb Pabticiplb. 

The Past Participle of the Ist conjugation terminates 
in (idoj — amadOj loved ; the 2d and 3d conjugations in 
idOj-H>bedecidOj obeyed. All those which have another 
termination are irregular. As, 

Infinitivb. Past Paktioipik. 

abrir, to open ; ahierto, 

eubrir^ to cover ; efuMerto. 

deeir^ to say; dieTio. 

Meribir^ to write ; eserito, 

haeer, to do ; heeho, 

morir. to die; muerto: 

6« 

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(130) 



Infinitive. 



ponevy 
resolver^ 

volver^ 



to put ; 
to resolve ; 
to see ; 
to return ; 



Past PABTioinjt. 

puesto. 
resuelto, 
viato. 
vuelto. 



There are a great number of verbs whicli have two 
Past Participles, the one regular and the other irregular, 
of which the following most frequently occur: 

Ibbsg. Pakt. 
lendito. 
eompulso, 

eoi\fu80, 

eormcto. 

converso. 

detpierto. 

electo, 

enjuto. 

exeluao. 



Infi 


NITIVK. 


Reg. Pabt. 


hendeeir^ 


to bless ; 


hendeeidOy 


eompeler^ 


to compel ; 
to conclude ; 


eompelido^ 


concluir^ 


eancluido, 


confundir^ 


to confound; 


confundido^ 


contender^ 


to convince ; 


eomencido^ 


eorwertir^ 


to convert; 


convertido^ 


deapertar. 


to awake ; 


despertado^ 


elegir^ 


to elect; 


elegidOj 


enjugar, 


to dry; 


enjugado^ 


excluir^ 


to exclude; 


excluido, 


expel&Ty 


to expel ; 


expelido^ 


expresar, 


to express ; 


expreaado^ 


extinguir^ 


to extinguish ; 


extinguidoy 


fja/r. 


to fix; 


Jljado^ 


incluir, 


to include ; 


incluido^ 


insertar^ 


to insert; 


insertado^ 


junta/r^ 


to join ; 


juntadOy 


manifestaTy 


to manifest; 


manifestado^ 


oprimir^ 


to oppress ; 


oprimido^ 


prescriJfir^ 


to prescribe ; 
to break ; 


preaeribido^ 


romper^ 


rompido^ 


soltoT^ 


to set at liberty ; 


aoUado, 


suprimir^ 


to suppress ; 


auprimidOy 



expreao. 
extinto. 

tncluao. 

inaerto, 

junto. 

manifieato, 

opreao, 

preacrito, 

roto. 

auelto, 

aupreao. 



The Eegular Participles are used with the auxiliary 
verb haber; the Irregular Participles — as henditOj con- 
fuso, convicto^ etc. — are verbal adjectives and absolute, 
and can only be used with eei' or estar. 



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66. 




ADVERBS. 


1. Adverbs of Affinnation and Negation : 


•i. 


yes. 


no, no. 


'Z'L.nuS -^-^^ 


no, not 
nada, nothing. 


2. Adverbs of Doubt: 




WQMO^ 


by chance. 


quizd, perhaps. 


3. Adverbs of Manner, 


Quality, and Quantity : 


Um, 


well. 


edanto, how much ! 


mai 


ill. 


c6mo, howl 


a^' 


thus. 


mueho, much. 


guieto^ 


silently, 
strongly. 


poco, little. 


recio^ 


mup, very. 


despacic 


, slowly. 


tanto, too much. 


alto, 


high. 


harto, enough. 


lajo. 


low. 


moi, more. 


tan, 


so. 


menos, less. 


euanto, 


as much as. 




4. Adverbs of Time and Place : 


aqui, 


1l<^1*A 


hoy, to-day. 


aed. 


UCl O. 


ayer, yesterday. 


aU, 


1 


maflana, to-morrow. 


alii. 


there. 


tf^W(inter.)[ ^^®^- 


alld, * 


cerca. 


near. 


ahora, at present. 


lejos, 


far. 


hiego, soon. 


s&, 


where? 


tarde, late. 
temprcmo, early. 
presto, quick. 
siempre^ always. 


dentro, 


in, within. 


fuera. 


without. 




above. 


nunea, i „^^^^ 


aboQo, 


below. 


jamasl \ ^^^«^- 


deianUy 


before. 


ya, already, now, 


AePras, 


behind. 


yet 


eneima, 


upward. 


hiego, immediately 


debajo, 


downward. 





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(132) 

Observations on the Adverbs. 
Jamas is frequently used for nunca; as, 

It is sometimes joined to nunca^ d par sienypre^ para 
^fiemprCy to give more energy and force to an' expression ; 
as, 

nunca jamas^ never. 

nuncajamcks lo dirSy I shall never say that. 

JViOj no, is not always used as a negation ; it only adds 
power to the affirmation : 

Mejor es el trdbajo que no la it is better to work than be 
ociosidady idle. 

Adverbs are formed by adding the syllable mente or 
xmente to adjectives ; as, 



fddl, 

fuerte^ 

bvsnOy 



facilmente. 

fuertemente. 

baenamente. 



57. 

PREPOSITIONS. 



The Prepositions most in use are the following : 



dnteSy ante^ 

eon^ 

eontraty 

de, 

desde^ 

en, 

entre. 



to. 


Mcia, 


before. 


hctetOy 


with. 


para, 


against. 


por, 


of. 


Begun, 


from, since. 


sin. 


in. 


edbre. 


between. 


tras, detras, 



towards. 

until. 

for. 

by, through. 

according to. 

without 

upon. 

after. 



These are the only Prepositions which the Spanisli 
Academy acknowledges; but the following are often 
employed as such, and are followed by de or d, 

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( 133 ) 

PBKPOSmONS FOLLOWED BY DE. 

ucxwnds^ besides ; as, ademds del doU^ besides the marritige porti :n. 

dntes^ before; dnteg de la nocfie^ before night 

dpesar^ in spite of; d pesar del amo^ in spite of the master. 

d^hajo^ under ; debajo de la coma, under the bed. 

delantey before; delante del rey^ before the king. 

dentro^ in ; dentro de dos aflos^ in two years. 

despues^ after ; despuea de ponerse el soly after sunset. 

detras, behind ; detras de ta puerta^ behind the door. 

eneima^ on ; encima de la mesa, on the table. 

en /rente, opposite; en /rente de la iglena, opposite the church. 

fuera, except; /uera del ministro, except the minister. 

Prepositionb followed by a. 

en drden, I as to • -1^ ^rden d ) lo que le dije, as to what I said 
en euantOj J "^ "^ » j^ etianto d ) to him. 
junto, close to ; junto al ayuntamiento, close to the city-hall. 

tocante, concerning ; tocante d este asunto, concerning this affair. 

The following general rules must be observed : 

1. The place from where one comes is indicated by de. 
% Where one is, by en. 

3. Where one goes to, by d. 

4. Where one passes through, hjjpor. 

5. The instrument by which one makes a thing is in- 
dicated by can. 



58. 
00NJUN0TI0N8. 

The principal Conjunctions, which the Spanish Acad- 
emy has divided into the following classes, are : 

CONJUNOTIVK. 

y, S, and. ni, nor. que^ that. 

DisjuNomx 
S, or. m . . . . ni, neither .... nor. ya,...ya, soon .... soon 

Adveesativk 

mas, pero, but. aunque, though. df^df* que, in case that. 

yuando, when. hien que, although nno, but. 



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(134) 

Conditional. 

n, if. miSntrcu^ during. 

9ino^ if not. can tal que^ nnder the condition that 

como^ as. en case que, in case that. 

Casual. 
porque^ because. pti^, pues que, since. eomo, an 

COMPAEATIVK. 

que, as. cwi como, so. 

<vmo, as. a«i. as. 

Final. 

^^^^' I that 
para que, f 

59. 
INTERJECTIONS 

may be divided according to the various passions oi 
emotions which express them : 

1. Of Joy: 

ha, ha! he! 6 hala hala ! 

2. Of Compassion, or Pain : 

oh! ah! ay! ayme! quay! 

3. Of Admiration : 

oh! 6 Bios! 

4. ^Of Exclamation : 

ehis ! hola ! he ! oh! cece eel 

5. Of Threatening : 

quay! ya, ya! tate! 

6. Urging or Exhorting : 

ea! alto! sits! dnimo! quedo! quedito! paso! lien I 

7. Silencing: 

ehito ! ea silencio ! qued(\ quedo ! quedito ! 



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(135) 



READING LESSONS. 



Narbacion. 

[Jn buen religioso, que tiene mas de ochenta anoe, me 
conto, que hace como unos cuarenta, que le llamdron 
oara auxiliar & un bandolero, que ifca i ser ajusticiado. 
fee le encerro con el reo en la capilla ; mientras el Padre 
ee esforzaba con bus gritoB para escitarle al arrepenti- 
miento de bus culpas, vio que el hombre estaba distraido 
y que apfinas le oia. \ Hijo mio ! le dijo, piense Vm. en 
que se nallard prontamente ante la presencia de Dios. 
I C6mo es que se distrae de un asunto de la 61tima im- 
portancia? Tiene Vm. razon, Padre mio, le dijo el reo, 
pero yo no puedo apartar de mi la idea de que e8t4 en 
ins manos el salvarme la vida ; y tal pensamiento es 
jauy capaz de distraerme. j Que habia yo de hacer para 
eso ? X aun cuando pudiese, j deberia dar ocasion & que 
cometiese Vm. otros nuevos delitos? Si esto solo de- 
tiene & Vm., Padre, yo le doy mi palabra de no volver 
a ellos ; he visto el suplicio desde muy cerca para que 
pueda esponerme i, 61 de nuevo. El Keligioso hizo lo 
que hubieramos hecho en semejante caso, se lleg& i en- 
ternecer, y no ^e habl6 mas que de lo qu6 se habia de 
hacer para el efecto de librarle. No tenia mas luz la 
capilla que la de una claraboya, <jue habia en el techo, 
bastantemente bajo. " Vm. no tiene, dijo el bandolero, 
sino gue poner su silla sobre el altar, la que entre los 
dos facilmente, supuesto que es port&til, traer6mos aqui 
en medio ; subird Vm. sobre la silla, y yo sobre sus es- 
paldas, desde donde llegar6 al techo." El Keligioso se 
pre8t6 a la tal maniobra, facilitando asl la fuga del reo, 
y despues de haber vuelto & su puesto el altar, se sent6 
muy tranquilo en la misma silla. Entr& el yerdugo al 

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(136) 

cabo de tres horas, y adtnirado pregunto al Religioso por 
el reo. Por fuerza era algun angel, respondio el Fraile, 
pues & f6 de Sacerdote, que se na saliao por el techo. 
rarti6 el verdugo precipitadamente i. advertir i los 
Jueces, que inmediatameute volaron i aquel sitio ; donde 
sentado aun con mucho descanso el Padre, mostrdndolea 
la ventaua, les aseguro, en conciencia, que se habia raar^ 
chado por ella su penitente, j que habia faltado poco 
para que no se encomendase a 61, teniendole por un santo, 
J que sobre todo, si era en efecto un delincuente, lo que 
ya no creia despues de este suceso, que i 61 no se lo 
habia dado el cargo de ser alcaide suyo. Los Magistra 
dos no pudieron conservar mas su seriedad, i vista de la 
frescura del buen Padre, j habiendo deseado feliz viage 
al paciente, se retiraron todos. Veinte afios despues 
pasando este Religioso por los Ard6nas, perdi6 el camino 
al anochecer. Una especie de paisano, habi6ndole mi- 
rado y remirado muy cuidadosamente, le pregunto donde 
iba, y le aseguro que el camino que tenia que tomar era 
muy peligroso ; afiadiole tambien, que si queria seguirle 
le conduciria a una alqueria, que no estaba distante 
donde pasaria la noche. El Religioso se vio confiin- 
dido. La curiosidad con que el hombre le habia mirado, 
le daba en que sospechar ; pero considerando que si tenia 
algun mal designio, le era imposible ya el escaparse de 
BUS manos, le siguio temeroso. Su miedo no duix) 
mucho ; vi6 prontamente la quinta de que el hombre le 
habia hablado, y al entrar, 61 mismo que era el dnefio de 
ella, mand6 d su raujer que matase un buen capon, y 
Jos mejores polios, para regalar bien al hu6sped que 
traia. Mi6ntras se preparaba la cena, el paisano volvio 
i entrar, acompaflado de ocho criaturas, 4 las cuales 
dijo : hijos mios, dad gracias a este buen Religioso, pues 
sin 61 ni vosotros ni yo estariamos en el mundo. El Re- 
ligioso cay6 entonces en las facciones de este hombre, y 
reconoci6 al bandolero, cuya evasion habia favorecido. 
Se vio agobiado de las caricias y gracias de aquella 
familia, y cuando estuvo solo con el hombre, le pregunto 
como era que se hallaba tan bien establecido. lo cum- 
pli a Vm. mi palabra (le dijo el paisano), y determinado 
k vivir como hombre de bien, vine pidiendo limosna 

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( 137 ) 

aasta este sitio ; entrc a servir al dueilo de esta qninta, 
V habi6ndome ganado su amistad con mi fidelidad y 
bnena conducta, me hizo casar con su hija, que era 
6mca. Dios ha bendecido los esfuerzos que he hecho 
para ser hombre de bien, j rae he adquirido los bienes 
que Vra. ve, de los <jue puede disponer, como igual- 
mente de mi, que morn-6 muy contento de haber vuelto 
a ver a Vm., y de poderle probar mi reconociraiento. 
El Religioso le dijo que estaba muy pagado del favor 
que en la capilla le habia hecho, pues que hacia tan 
buen uso de la vida que le habia conservado. No quiso 
aceptar cosa alguna de las que le ofrecia, pero no pudo 
negarse i pasar unos dias en aquella casa, donde se le 
trat& como a un rey. Despues el buen hombre le pre- 
ciso d que se sirviese de uno de sus caballos, para acabar 
Bu camino, y no le dejo hasta que le puso fuera de los 
peligros, que eran muy grandes en aquella tierra. 

Anecdota. 

Habiendome hallado uno de mis amigos : " Congrif, 
me dijo, hombre. t6 eres muy sedentario, no te veo en 
tertulia alguna, y particularmente en las de los Grandes. 
Por mon&tona que sea la conversacion de ciertos Grandes, 
sin embargo mas se gana que pierde con estos sefiores. 
Conozco a varios que te estiman, ven conmigo k verles, 
ven, amigo Congrif, te prometo que serds muy bien 
recibido, y que apreciardn tus visitas.*' 

Dej6me Uevar, vestime, y por primer ensayo me llev6 
& comer en casa de un gran senor que tenia numerosa 
concurrencia aquel dia. 

" Gonviene, me dijo mi introductor, que sepas los esti- 
los de esta casa ; el amo es muy estraordinario y apre- 
hensivo, pero yo te dar6 con el pi6 siempre que sea del 
caso avisarte alguna cosa. En cuanto k lo demas es un 
hombre guapo, muy escelente, generoso, sensible y deli- 
cado." 

Con esto rae determine a ir con el amigo ; entre ; me 
present6 ; levantaronse todos, salude al seiior mio, y des- 
pues a toda la concurrencia. Hecho esto me dirigi al 
dueiio de la casa, quien me dio la mano haciendome la 

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(138) 

. mayor espresion ; ya conocia a Vra. sin haberle visto, 
me dijo; y me alegro mucho de que le hayan traido a 
mi casa, pues deseo vivamente su amistad. Senor, le 
respond! yo, he venido con mucho gusto, seguramente 

aue no lo he hecho con violencia. / Chitt ! / chitt ! me 
ijo quedito el amigo pisandome el pie ; no pronuncies 
la palabra violencia delante del senor; mira que le 
tiene tal aborrecimiento desde cierto lance de honor del 
que no salio muy bien, que se altera notablemente 
cuando la oye. . . . j Vdlgame Dios, respond! yo, cuanto 
siento haberle disgustado con mi violencia! Desde 
ahora hago firmisimo proposito de excluir semejanto 
voz de mi diccionario siempre que venga d esta casa. . . . 
Efectivamente conoci que dio un respingo y que fruncio 
las cejas al oir dicha palabra. Bien veo ahora, dije yo 
entre mi, que conviene ser muy reservado cuando no se 
conocen las gentes. 

Sin embargo de esto me hicieron van'as preguntas re- 
lativas k mi estado : habi^ndome dicho una sefLorita muy 
bonita : " Senor Con^if, moria de deseos de ver & Vm. ; 

JT con todo eso no creia que hubiera sido hoy." S-^fiora, 
e respond! con galanteria, mucho gano yo sin duda con 
la sorpresa que v m. manifiesta. / Chitt ! / chitt ! Ami- 
go Congrif, no hables de ganar en esta casa ; mira que 
si el amo oyese esa espresion la sentiria muchisimo, pues 
se enfada en estremo cuando oye esa palabra, desde que 

Serdio un cierto pleito que esperaba ganar. Lo que no 
eje de advertir f ue, que mi amigo me apretaba tan de 
veras el pie, que no me daba ganas de reir. Sasta decir 
que tenia un callo nada pequeno que me hacia rabiar, el 
mismo que me queria ablandar mi buen amigo. j Que 
tal? 

Mai haya mi suerte, me decia yo & solas j por que 
veniste i esta casa ? \ Qu6 no hubiera yo estudiado cin- 
cuenta anos los requisites para visitar a este seQor.t 

Llego la hora de comer sentamonos todos y por ca- 
Bualidad el pan que me pusieron estaba algo quemado. 
Como no me gusta mascar carbon (de gustos no se ha 
escrito) tome el cuchillo y lo rasp6, en lo que me deten- 
dria a todo lo mas un minuto. Tal fu6 la pisada que mo 
di6 mi amigo que yo ere! que me habia molido cl pie 

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(139) 

^ Que has hecho liombre? me dijo al oido. Mira que 
el amo de la casa no puede ver que se raspe el pan desde 
que rauri6 una muchacha d quien adoraba j que tenia esa 
costumbre. Valgame mil veces Mahoma, le respondi ; 
soy una bestia ; pero jporqu6 no me dijo Vm. toao esto 
Antes de entrar ? 

Pasome por la cabeza ; estando ya en los postres, de- 
cir: "Este vino es escelente: seguramente v que no ea 
mejor el que crece en las faldas del Pamaso. Cien 
fucntes como la de Hypocrene daria por un trago de 
este vino." Ap6nas hube pronunciado estas fatales pa- 
labras, cuando todos los semblantes de los que se halla- 
ban en la mesa muddron enteramente de color. El amo 
se puso mas amarillo que una cera, y le di6 un desmayo. 
Mi amigo, aunque descolorido, y que temblaba como las 
hojas de los drboles en las mafianas del otofio, ni por 
estas se olvido de apretarme el callo. jAyl jAyl le 
dije al oido, iqu6 he dichol iqu6 es lo que he hecho 1 
Estoy perdido si no me sacas de este apuro. Congrif, 
me re8pondi6 mi amiffo, el caso es ya mas que serio ; no 
se como reparar las ialtas que has cometido, pues has 
hablado de fuentes, cuando esa voz es un rayo para el 
dueno de la casa, desde que en una faente se le ahogo un 
perro de lanas & quien queria muchisimo, y no solo las 
fuentes sino todo lo que le acuerda la muerte de sn per- 
rito le amedrenta. 

Despues de tanta imprudencia lo que importaba era 
callar, y no responder aunque me preguntasen. Sin em- 
bargo dij6ronme que cantara ; no te escuses me dijo el 
amigo, hurgdndome el pie ; el seflor N. aborrece d los 
que se hacen rogar : y lo siento muchisimo.. Pero j qu6 
he de cantar? Lo que Vm. guste. Entonfi mi copla, 
y el demonio quiso que en ella se hallase el nombre do 
Elisa. Hete aqui que el amo de la casa da un porrazo ; 
asorabranse todos los convidados, y los lacayos corren y 
se precipitan para levantar d S. E. Eevent6rae el pi6 
mi amigo, yo me levante, tom6 el sombrero y la espada, 
y me sali de la casa, haciendo mil propositos de morir 
an tea de hambre que vol ver d ellani d comer ni d cenar. 



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MODELS OF LETTERS. 



ESQUELAS 6 BiLLETES MANU8CBIT0S. 
1. 

Una amiga citando d ot/ra para d teairo. 

Mi querida: tengo palco y coche para ir i. ver eeta 
tarde El Profeta. A las cinco han qnedado en venir a 
buscarme; si quieres estar aqui & dicha hora, podrds 
acompaliarnos, y estard con mas gusto en el teatro, a tu 
lado, tu amiga de corazon. Antonia. Hoy 6. 

2. 
Convite de un GdbaUero d una Seftara para un haile. 

Mi estimada Dofia N. : celebro mis dias con un baile, 
que careceria de su lucimiento sin la notoria habilidad 
de Vm. ; la espero i las seis de la tarde ; venga Vm. 

Sara que pueda ser completa la satisfaccion de su servi- 
or, etc. 

3. 

Una Senorita j>ide a un conocido que sea su compadre, 

Vm. me ha dicho repetidas veces que se alegraria in- 
finito de contraer alguna alianisa conmigo. Siendo, pues, 
cierto que se me proporciona la ocasion de podersela 
procurar d Vm., con motive de haber dado d luz un hijo 
mi amiffa Dofia N., y que me ruega sea yo su raadrina* 
eligiendome por mi misma el paurino ; si quiere Vm 
concederme el honor de hacerse ml compadre, tenga 
Vm. la bondad de venir por mi d las seis de la tarde 
Queda de Vm., etc. 

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(141) 

Cartas de Eis^horabuena, 

4. 

A un amigo^ po7* su mceva colocacion. . 

Pues que no duda Vm. de la amistad que le profeso, 
tampoco le serd dificil comprender cuanto he celebrado 
gu nuevo empleo. Pero aseguro con verdad, que como 
el grande rnqrito de Vm. me nacia esperar esto, mucho 
tiempo ha, no me ha cogido de susto su nueva colocacion. 
Deseo a Vm. otras mayores, mientras no ambiciono, por 
mi parte, mas honor, que el de poder asegurar & Vm. la 
sincera amistad con que serd siempre suyo, etc. 



liespuesta. 

Ya que toma Vm. por mi nuevo destine todo el interes 
propio de nuestra antigua amistad, le ruego francamente 
que procure participar igualmente del credito j ntilidad 
que el pueda procurarme ; no tenga Vm. qne dejarme 
ocioso en cuanto de mi dependa, crey6ndome muy im- 
paciente por manifestar d Vm. cuanto le estima este su, 
etc. 

6. 
Carta de pardbien d un grande. 

EscMo. Senor : 

Aunque sere de los tiltimos a dar & V. E. mi humilde 
enhorabuena, puedo asegurar que he sido de losprimeros 
a manifestar por aqui mipiiblica alegria ; y como esta 
obligaci6n mia para con V. E. deduce su valor mas bien 
de mi zelo, que de mi activa diligencia, he pensado, que 
no por ser tardio seria n?6nos agradable d V. E. Si yo 
no nubiera tenido otro objeto, que el del engrandeci- 
miento de su fortuna, me nubiera anticipado en esto & 
cuantos me han cogido la delantera ; pero acorddndome 
siempre del ilustre m6rito de V. E., he seguido la fuerza 
de mis sentimientos, mejor que la de la costumbre, sin 
procurarme otro bien que el de hacer notar & V. E. el 
profundo respeto con que ruego a Dios, etc. 



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( 1*2 ) 

7. 

Respuesta. 

Muy Selior mio : es cierto que estoy en un empleo, a 
que mi poco m6rito no me permitia aspirar, y con el 
que temo no poder cumplir tan bien como mis amigoa 
60 prometen ; pero crea V m. ei he de hallar gusto en mi 
mieva fortuna, serd cuando me proporcione ocasiones, en 
que pueda yo dar 6 Vm. pruebas de mi constante afecto, 
i' logre asegurarle/que ninguna cosa deseo tanto como 
a estimacion de Ym., y ser siempre su, etc. 



{; 



8. 

Otra de enhorahuena en general. 

El regocijo que me causa la prosperidad de Vm. me 
obliga d escribirle en esta ocasion para manifestar a Vm. 
el grande interes que tomo en el bien que le sucede. 
Espero no le serdn desagradables estas espresiones de 
una persona, que qnisiera manifestar & Vm. prdctica- 
mente, que es y serd siempre su mas seguro servidor, etc. 

9. 

Resjpuesta. 

Muy SeELor mio : agradezco en estremo la parte que 
Vm. toma en lo que me sucede de favorable ; esta es una 
nueva prueba de la amistad, con que me distingue; 

Eero me Uena de confusion el no lia!ber podido lograr 
asta ahora ninguna ocasion con que hacer ver a Y m. 
que me la merezco seguramente. Tal vez en lo sucesivo 
sere mas dichoso, y entonces manifestare la sinceridad 
con que soy su, etc. 

10. 

Cartas de recomendacion. 

Muy Sefior mio : si Ym. pudiese servir al Sefior Don . . . 
en lo que desea, me hard Ym. un singular favor y le 
estar6 siempre agradecido. Es imposible que Ym. 
pueda proteger d una persona mas honrada y mas digna 

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( 143 ) 

por todos conceptos de que Vm. se interese por ella. Si 
yo no estuviera couvencido de que, al recomendar a 
V m. este sugeto, facilitaba el medio de hacer ilna buena 
accion, no me hubiese podido resolver d importunarle ; 
pero conozco que el m6rito y la posicion del Sr. Dn .... 
seran para Vm. la mejor de todas las recomendacionoe. 
Tengo el honor de ser, etc. 

11. 

Muy Senor j Amigo mio : la persona que tendr4 el 
honor de entregar 4 Vm. esta carta, es el Sr. Dn .... mi 
intimo amigo, que va d esa ciudad con motive de asunto 
importante, que no dudo lograra si Vm. se digna ayu- 
darle con sus conseios y proteccion. Cuando Vm. le 
conozca, su mfirito le recomendard aun mas especial- 
mente. Y por esta razon, convencido de sus calidades 
y de la amistad que Vm. me profesa, me tomo la liber- 
tad de recomenddrsele con el mayor interes, tanto mas 
cuanto mis recomendaciones no han side nunca vanas 
con Vm. 

Voy, etc. 

Cartas de Comercio. 

12. 

Carta de un comerciante ofredendo d oin^o sus servtcios 
y correspondenGia. 

Valencia, 20 de Julio de 18—. 
Sb. Dn. K, Cadiz: 

Muy Seilor mio : debo el conocimiento de su casa de 
Vm. a estos mis amigos los Seiiores Sanjuan y Ca., y en 
su consecuencia me tomo la libertad de escribirle. Estoy 
enterado que las principales operaciones del comercio 
de Vm. son en frutos de America, aguardientes y vinos ; 
y siendo estos los ramos que esta su casa de Vm. estd 
desempenando en comision por cuenta de varies amigos 
do esa y otras plazas, d quienes merezco su confianza, 
tengo el gusto ae ofrecerme d Vm. para lo mismo, ase- 

fjurdndole ^ue hallard un desempefiio proporcionado a 
OS conocimientos que tengo en ellos, y que cuidar6 sua 
intereses como propios. 

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( 144 ). 

Incluyo & Vin. una nota de nuesti-os precios, j si gneta 
le dar6 inis avisos siempre que haj^a variacion, con todas 
las noticias que contemple Vm. dtiles para sus c&Iculos ; 
y deseando que nuestra corr^ondencia se interese con 
reciproca utilidad, quedo de Y m. 

S. S. S. 

Q. S. M. B. 

13. 

Contestaoiofi a la. carta que antecede. 

CIdis, 12 de Agodo de 18 — . 
Sb. Dn. N., Yalencia : 

Muy Seflor mio : la apreciable de Vm. de del 

pasado me deja enterado de que esos SeQores Saiyuan 
y Ca.,le han dado conocimiento de esta su casa de V m., 
y estimo mucho sus ofrecimientos, de los que me valdr6 
Riempre que las circunstancias me lo proporcionen. Me 
sirve de gobierno la nota de precios ae frutos coloniales, 
vinos y aguardientes que V m. me ha incluido ; y en 
caso de variacion, suplico d V"m. §e sirva avisArmelo. 
Gon este motive me ofrezco k la disposicion de Vm. para 
cuanto me contemple titil en esta plaza, que le servird 
con gusto, etc. 

14. 

Carta de un comerciante de Valencia^ qtbc par su cuervta 
hoLGe un pedido de frutos coloniales d otro de Cadiz. 

Yalincia, etc. 
Sr. Dn. N., Cadiz: 

Muy Sefior mio: hace tiempo que se halla parada 
nuestra correspondencia, y deseando interesarla suplico 
ii Vm. se sirva comprarme : 

20 sacos cacao Caracas, 
10 id. id. guayaquil, 
20 caias de azucar asurtidas, 
1 sobornal grana negra. 
No sefialo d Vm. precios, pues me prometo que ha 
ciendo como en cosa propia, nada omitird para procu- 
rarme toda conveniencia posible ; pero si le encargo, que 
los cacaos sean frescos y limpios, los azucares secos y 

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( 145 ) 

buenos, y la grana superior. De esta me Lara Vm. en- 
vio por lo8 arrieros, y por mar de los cacaos y azticares 
♦en ao8 6 tres barcos para dividir el riesgo, y patrones de 
confianza, qiiedando d mi ciiidado proveer a Ym. de 
fondos para hacer frente a cste mi encargo. Entretanto 
queda oe Vm.. etc 

15. 

Carta dd comerciante de Valencia d Dn. N. de Madrid^ 
ddndole 6rden qice acepte ypcmce las letraa gue de &u 
cuenta la librard Dn. iV^. de Cadiz. 

Yalekcia, etc. 
Sr. Dn. N., Madrid. 

Muy Sefior mio : sin favorecida de Vm. & que con- 
testar este correo, debo decirle : que Dn. N. de CAdiz li- 
brard k Vm. de mi enenta hasta unos 60,000 Es. vn. ; y 
le suplico se sirva honrar su firma, ddndome debito y 
aviso. 

Kespecto que para dar Vm. cumplimiento & esta mi 
disposicion, segun una vista que he dado & mis libros, le 
faltardn d Vm. unos 30,000 Ks. vn., podrd librar d mi 
cargo como guste, procurdndome toda ventajaposible en 
el cambio. Sirvase Vm. cotarme los eambios y agio de 
vales para mi gobierno. Es lo que ocurre decir noy a 

s* s. s. 

Q.. S. M. B. 
16. 

Carta del coinerciante de Madrid contestando A la que 
antecede. 

Madrid, etc. 
Sr. Dn. N., Valencia : 

. Muy Sefior mio ; la favorecida de Vm. de .... del 
corriente me deja enterado de la 6rden que ha dado a 
Dn. N. de Cddiz para librar d mi cargo de cuenta de 
Vm. hasta unos 60,000 Es. vn., de que he tomada nota 
Y quede seguro que acogere su firma, dando aviso y 
debito d Vm., de sus trastes, y por los fondos que me 
falten librar6 d cargo de Vm. a lo mejor posible. A 
eontinuacion la nota de nuestros eambios d gobierno. 
Queda de Vm., etc. 

7 

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IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 



1. 



I Como 86 dice eso ? 

Eso se llama. 

Hagame Yd. este favor, este 

gusto. 
Con mncbo gusto. 
Es Vd. muy cumplido. 
Sirvase Vd. 

Viva Yd. mucbos anos. 
Yo le aseguro a Yd. que. 
Creo que si. 
Creo que no. 
Digo que si. 
Es veidad que. 
SI, en verdad. 
Es una falsedad. 
Creame Yd. 
A f(§ de caballero. 
Yd. tiene razon. 
Yd. no tiene razon. 
No lo creo. 
No puedo. 
I No es verdad ? 
No hay duda. ) 
Sin duda. ) 
Eso no es imposible. 



How do you say that I 
That is called. 
Do me this favor. 

With much pleasure. 
You are very kind. 
Be so kind as. 
I ^m obliged to yoiu 
I assure you that. 
I believe so. 
I believe not 
I say yes. 
It is true that. 
Yes, indeed. 
It is a &lsebood« 
Believe me. 
Upon my honor. 
You are right 
You are wrong. 
I do not believe it 
I cannot 
Is it not true f 

Without doubt 

It is not impossible. 



I Qu6 se ha de hacer ? 
lla^amos una cosa. 
Es To mismo. 
Como lo pasa Yd. ? 



What is to be done f 
Let us do one thing. 
It is all the same. 
How do you do f 



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(147) 



Dios bendiga 4 Yd. 

Sea Vd. bien venido. 

I Sabe Vd. que ? 

Yo no lo 86. 

He oido decir que. 

Todos lo dicen. 

I Qu6 dice 61 ? 

No dice nada. 

So se lo diffa Vd. 

No le diga Yd. ni una palabra. 

I Que quiere decir estof 



God bless you. 

Be welcome. 

Do you know that ? 

I do not know it. 

I have heard that 

Everybody says it 

What does he say f 

He says nothing. 

Do not tell it to him. 

Do not tell him a word of it 

What is the meaning of that F 



3. 



Me alegro. 

I D6nde estd ? 

En el campo. 

En la ciudad. 

En casa. 

Buenas noches, senor. 

I Sabe Vd. algunas noticias ? 

Traigo noticias muy buenas. 

j Ha leido Yd. la gazeta ? 

^ De quien lo sabe Yd. 

Soy de su opinion de Vd. 

Hablemos de otra cosa, sefiores. 

; Hombre, es posible I 



I am very glad. 

Where is he ? 

In the country. 

In town. 

At home. 

Good night, sir. 

What is the news ? 

I bring good news. 

Have you read the paper ? 

Of whom have you heard this f 

I am of your opinion. 

Let us talk of something else. 

Is it possible I 



I Aprende Yd. el Espanol ? 
Si, sefior, algun tiempo ha. 
Es una lengua hermosa. 
Aunque es mas de moda la 

Francesa. 
Por mi, mas me gusta la Es- 

pafiola. 
Dicen que Vd. sabe muy bien 

el Espanol. 
jLehablaVd.? 
I Le sabe Vd. hablar ? 
Yo le hablo un poco. 
|Como se llama eso en Es- 

paflol f 



Do you learn Spanish ? 
Yes, sir, some time ago. 
It is a beautiful language. 
Although French is more the 

feshion. 
I prefer Spanish. 

They say you understand 

Spanish well. 
Do you speak it ? 
Can you speak it ? 
I speak it a little. 
What do you call that in 

Spanish ? 

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I Pronuncio bien ? 

Vd. tiene may buena pronuii- 

ciacion. 
jEstA Vd. dando leccion de 

Espanol ? 
Si, sefior. 
I C6mo se llama sa maestro de 

Vd.? 
|Cu4nto tiempo ha que toma 

Vd. leeciones ? 
Algunos seis meses. 
Vd. Labia muy bien. 



Do I pronounce well ? 
You have a very good pronun- 
ciation. 
Do you take lessons in Spanish f 

Yes, sir. 

What is the name of youi 

teacher ? 
How long have you been tak 

ing lessons ? 
About six months. 
You speak very well. 



5. 



I Es posible ? 
; Que disparate I 
Es dable. 

; Que contento estoy ! 
I Que desgracia I 
j Es admirable I 
I Que asombroso ! 
I Cu4nto me alegro ! 
; Qu6 maravilla I 
I Qu6 vergiienza ! 
I Que hermoso I 
^ Qu6 dclicia ! 
I Es admirable ! 



Is it possible ? 
What nonsense ! 
It is probable. 
How happy I am I 
What a misfortune I 
It is admirable ! 
How astonishing ! 
How glad I am 1 
What a wonder I 
What a shame ! 
How beautiful ! 
How delightful 1 
It is admirable ! 



Abandonarse a la suerte. 
Aborrecible a las gentes. 
Acordarse de alguna cos-a. 
Adolecer de enfermedad. 
Atreverse 4 cosas grandes 
Caer en tierra. 
Cacr en lo que se dice. 
Calentarse al fuego. 
Caminar a Sevilla. 
Caminar por el monte. 
Defender 4 alguno. 
Estar de viage. 
Falto de dinero. 



To deliver one's self to fate. 

Detested by the people. 

To remember a thing. 

To become ill. 

To undertake great things. 

To fall to the ground. 

To understand what one says. 

To warm one's self at the lir» 

To travel to Seville. 

To traverse the mountain. 

To defend some one. 

To be on a journey. 

Without monev* 



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(149) 



Qablar de algana cosa. 
Hablar con algiino. 
Hallarse en casa. 
Insistir en algo. 
Meterse en los peligros. 
Mirar de lejos. 
Montar a caballo. 
Pagar en dinero. 
1 Var en casa. 
I Qni6n de ellos ? 
Razonar con algnno. 
Ultimo de todos. 
Venir con alguno. 



To speak of something. 

To speak to somebody. 

To be at home. 

To insist on something. 

To place one's self in danger 

To see from far. 

To mount on horseback. 

To pay cash. 

To remain at home. 

Which of them ? 

To speak with some one. 

The last of all 

To come with somebody. 



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AHN. A New, Practical, and Easy Method of Learning the Spanish 
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In this volume are embodied the results of many years* experience on 
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New Spanish Reader : 

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Koy to EzerdflOfl. Separate volume. 

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Key to Bxercisea Separate volume. 

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^—— '-'— — ' ■■■ — ■ ■ ■ ■ — 

The Spanish Teacher and Colloquial Phrase- 
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An Easy and Agreeable Method of Acquiring a Speaking Knowledge 
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The object of the author is to make the Spanish language a liying, 
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Spanish Grammar. 

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De TOIUM. The Combined Spanish Method. A New Practical and Theoretical 
System of Learning the Castiliao Language, embracing the most adyan- 
tageoaa Features of the best known Methods. With a Pronouncing Vocaba- 
lary. 12mo. 

tiey to the Combined Spanish Method. 

Be Vere. Orammar of the Sx>anish Language, with a History of tke Language 
and Practica] Exercises. By Schblb db Vbbs. 13mo. 

Biotionaries. See Meadows and Velazquez. 

Meadows's Spanish-English and English-Spanish Dictionary. 18mo. 

Morales. Progressive Spanish Reader, with an Analytical Study of the Spanish 
Language. By Auoustin Jos£ Morales, A. M. H. M., Professor of the Span- 
ish Language in the New York Free Academy. 336 pages. 12mo. 

OUendorff. A New Method of Learning to Read, Write, and Speak the Spanish 
Language, after the System of Ollendorff. By .Mno. Velazquez and T. 
Stmonn£. 560 pages. 12mo. 

Key to the Exercises in the New Method of Learning to Read, Write, and 

Speak the Spanish Language, after the System of Ollendorff. By M. Velaz- 
quez and T. Simonn^. 174 pages. 12ujo. 

Tolon. The Elementary Spanish Reader and Translator. With Spanish and 
English Vocabulary, containing all the words used in the Lessons. By 
Mioi-EL T. Tolon. 156 pages. 12mo. 

Velazquez. New Spanish Reader; consisting of Extracts fh>m the Works of 
the most approved Authors, in Prose and Verse, arranged in progressive 
order, with Notes explanatory of the Idioms and most diflBcult Constructions, 
and a copious Vocabulary. By Maiuano Velazquez de la Cadena. 851 
pages. 12mo. 

Seoane's Neuman and Baretti. By VelXzquez. A Pronouncing Dictionary 

of the Spanish and English Languages: composed trom. the Spanish Dic- 
tionaries of the Spanish Academy, Terreros, and Salv&, upon the Basis of 
Seoane's edition of Neuman and Baretti, and from the English Dictionaries 
of Webster, Worcester, and Walker ; with the addition of more than Bight 
Thonsand Words, Idioms, and Familiar Phrases, the Irregularities of all the 
Verbs, and a Grammatical Synopsis of both Languages. In Two Parts. I. 
8panish-En<;lieh ; II. English-Spanish. 1,810 pages, large 8vo. 



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larger woe 

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BLOM, Don 

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